Early African American Education in Shelby County Kentucky

Model School at Lincoln Ridge, Simpsonville KY
Model School at Lincoln Ridge, Simpsonville KY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This article was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Shelby County KY Historical Society in relation to Black History Month and the celebration of African American heritage.

Education of African Americans in Shelby County, Kentucky — A New Perspective

By Diane Perrine Coon

The January-February 2013 display in the Shelbyville Public Library highlights the long struggle to gain education for African American children in Shelby County, Kentucky. It features 1) Elijah Preston Marrs, a slave that became one of the earliest educators in Kentucky; 2) Lincoln Institute at Simpsonville, a boarding school providing African American children in the region a competent high school education during the segregated Kentucky decades; and 3) photos of the segregated schools at Bradshaw Street Graded School in Shelbyville, the Christiansburg Rosenwald School, and the faculty at High Street School in Martinsville, representative of the hundreds of dedicated teachers who struggled to teach against large class sizes, hand-me-down textbooks and scarce classroom resources.

In preparing the first countywide celebration of African American heritage in Shelby County, a number of important elements of African American education in this county were uncovered:

  1. A complete list of the Freedmen Bureau (1866-1870) schools and teachers in Shelby County — Simpsonville; Shelbyville (3 schools); Consolation (Stringtown); Christiansburg (Hinesville)
  2. A complete list of the Rosenwald Schools (1919-1924) in Shelby County and a petition for National Register designation for the Bucks Creek Rosenwald School —-     Bucks Creek, Christiansburg (Hinesville); Scotts Station; Chestnut Grove;  Clarks Station
  3. Identification of distinguished teachers and principals – a major element of African-American heritage in Shelby County, Kentucky. This work will continue.
  4. Brenda Jackson and Roland Dale have begun compilation of the Negro School Registers from the early 20th This work includes the complete list per school of the children, parents, teachers and teacher salaries during this period.

Reconstruction and Freedmen Bureau Schools (1866-1870):

Sources: Autobiography of Elijah Preston Marrs, Freedmen Bureau records, Kentucky State Library and Archives.

  1. Elijah Preston Marrs – taught at Simpsonville, Shelbyville, LaGrange, New Castle and Louisville; was a delegate to the 1868 Education Conference in Louisville that drew 1,000 supporters of education for African American citizens and training for Kentucky’s African-American teachers.
  2. Henry Marrs – taught at Lexington, Frankfort, LaGrange and Louisville
  3. Alfred E. Hughes – taught at Simpsonville’s Freedmen Bureau school
  4. William H. Russell, Joseph D. Mumford, Thomas S. Baxter, E. E. Hansborough – taught at Shelbyville’s three Freedmen Bureau schools
  5. Laura Stevens – taught at Christiansburg’s Freedmen Bureau School
  6. Charles Smith and Mrs. R. E. Harris – taught at Consolation’s Freedmen Bureau School

 Early Common School Era (1875-1920):

Sources: Notable Kentucky African Americans, University of Kentucky database; 1880 Federal Manuscript Census for Shelby County, Kentucky, 1882 Atlas of Henry and Shelby County, Kentucky; New History of Shelby County, Shelby County Historical Society; Local history files, Shelbyville Public Library.

  1.  Identification of Lewis Lawson, age 23, Sarah Clark, age 26, Lucy Gwinm, age 23, African American teachers in Shelby County’s few segregated common schools (from the 1880 federal manuscript census).
  2. 1881 Bartlett Taylor, born 1840 a slave in Henderson, Kentucky, gained wealth through meat packing and land speculation in Louisville, built several A.M.E. churches the largest in Bowling Green, came as pastor in 1881 to Bethel A.M.E. in Shelbyville, petitioned to build a school for African-American children that became the Graded School on Bradshaw. Rev. Taylor paid for the school building and its teachers. (From Notable Kentucky African Americans)
  3. 1898 African American School Districts – Uncovered the location of 15 of the 20 “colored” common schools, 6 in churches, 2 log, 7 frame, 1 brick, 1 condemned, (From the 1882 Atlas.)
  4. 1912 – first class at Lincoln Institute, early contracts between Shelbyville, Shelby County, Eminence, Henry County, for high school education; George T. Corderey the superintendent of woodwork, and Seaton Baldwin, superintendent of power, heat, etc., the first African Americans on the Lincoln Institute staff. (From the Public Library local history collections.)
  5. 1911-1915 – first consolidations of historic black schools, Clay Village and Rockbridge, Harrisonville and Waddy, Scotts Station and Todds Point, Evansville and Simpsonville (Model School) (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky).

Rosenwald Schools (1917-1924) – One Teacher Architecture:

“Rosenwald Schools of Kentucky,” Alicestyne Turley-Brown, 1997, Kentucky African American Heritage Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky

  1.  Buck Creek (next to Allen Chapel south of Finchville)
  2. Christiansburg (at Hinesville near Mount Pleasant Baptist Church)
  3. Chestnut Grove (northwest of Shelbyville)
  4. Olive Branch (between Finchville and Southville, on Zaring Mill Road)
  5. Clarks Station (north of the Fisherville Road on Clarks Station Road near tracks)
  6. Scotts Station (on Antioch Road at junction with Scotts Station Road across from Shiloh Baptist Church)

Segregated School System (1924-1956:

  1. 1930 – J. W. Roberts named superintendent of colored schools in Shelbyville; Hellen Johnson, age 19, Rachel Davis, age 18, and Kerk Smith, age 64, listed as teachers at Lincoln Institute. (From the 1930 federal manuscript census.)
  2. 1935-1936 – replaced the 1918 contract between Shelbyville Independent School District and Lincoln Institute to reflect addition of the management of the Model School serving Simpsonville children, reorganization of the 1-8 and High School; addition of the John Ethington broom factory, contracts let for transportation from Eminence, Shelbyville, Henry County and Shelby County. (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky.)
  3. 1936 – painted the school at Bagdad, rebuilt the Clarks Station and Todds Point schools, put an addition on the Scotts Station school, designated Harrisonville as an emergency school location. (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky).; Lucy Jane Payne, teacher at Scotts Station School. (From interview with Maureen Bullitt Ashby.)
  4. 1940 – Robert L. Dowery Sr. born in Shelbyville in 1893, served in 1940s as teacher and principal at Shelbyville’s Graded School, in the 1920s and 1930s he taught in schools in Franklin County, Taylor County, Campbellsville and Elizabethtown. President and organizer of District #4 Teachers Association, Served in U.S. Army in WW1, died 1952 and buried at Zachary Taylor National Cemetery.(From Notable Kentucky African Americans)
  5. 1940 – Shelbyville Colored Graded School (Bradshaw) upgraded using Public Works Administration funds and 90 cent general school tax, (From New History); Mr. R. D. Roman was principal at the Junior High School in Shelbyville and Mrs. Jewell J. Rabb was teacher there (from Shelbyville Sentinnel photo in the Shelbyviile Public Library local history collection); Ada Hedland, Curtis Greenfield and his wife Mary, Lamont Lawson, Joseph and Kathleen Carroll and Whitney Young all listed as teachers at Lincoln Institute; Will Allen, age 28, and Beatrice Boyd, age 34, listed as teachers in Rural District #7. (From 1940 federal manuscript census); Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Turner, teachers at the Model School at Lincoln Ridge and then transferred to the Montclair School. (From interview with Maureen Bullitt Ashby.)
  6. 1945 – Graded School on Bradshaw in Shelbyville burned; 1946-1948 – High Street School built in Martinsville on lots at Eleventh and High Street. 1949 – only three black elementary schools left in Shelby County. (From New History). Faculty included: Mrs. Ruth Ratcliffe, principal, Mrs. W. Mathis, music, Mrs. E. Byrd, Mrs. D. Dale, Mrs. J. Dale, Mrs. V. Purdy, Mrs. H. Taylor, Mr. M. Mooreman, Mrs. M. Brown, Mrs. F. Stone, Mrs. H. Thomas. (From Shelbyville Sentinnel photo in Shelby Public Library local history collection.)
  7. 1954 – Brown vs Board of Education strikes down segregated schools. 1956 first integration of Simpsonville Elementary; 1957 limited number of students integrate Southside Elementary in Shelbyville; 1964 Civil Rights Act; Shelby County dragged its heels toward integration of Junior and Senior High Schools, finally propelled to action by 1966 Kentucky Legislature closing both Lincoln Institute and High Street School. Brenda Jackson and Roland Dale, among first students to integrate Shelby County High School. Students still being bused to Lincoln Institute as late as 1969.
  8. 1980 – NAACP attacks school board’s affirmative action plan to hire and retain African American teachers as insufficient.

Help Needed to Complete African American School Locations:

  • We are trying to determine the specific location of the following schools:
  1. Olive Branch Rosenwald School
  2. “Colored” Common School location for Southville District, for Rockbridge District, for Harrisonville District, for Logans Station District, for Todds Station District, for Clay Village District.
  • Verify the use of the following African American churches as early school locations:
  1. Olive Branch Colored M.E. Church on Zaring Mill Road between Locust Grove Road and current Olive Branch M.E. Church.
  2. Pleasant View Colored Baptist Church at Stringtown on Route 1005
  3. “Colored Church” on Bardstown Trail between Grafensburg (Hardinsburg) and Route 395, Bagdad-Harrisonville Pike.
  4. Back Creek Road Baptist Church on Route 636 north of Mt. Eden; later had a school
  5. Zion Baptist Church at Clay Village and Benson
  6. Shelbyville – use of which church for Freedmen Schools; FB built one large brick school, contributed toward one smaller frame school and used one African American church as a school. Was this Clay Street or Bethel A.M.E.?

If anyone has information about these locations or photos of the schools/churches, please contact Diane Perrine Coon, de2perrine@aol.com or Kerry Magan at kcmcpc@bellsouth.net

 

 

Montclair, African American Hamlet in Shelby County, KY

Montclair Timeline

 1868 – First Land Purchase from Nancy Lyon’s Heirs  on Hickory Run: William Firman, Harvey, Russell and Jerry Bullitt. Originally a 138-acre farm, the land had been divided among heirs. Nancy Lyon had the dower portion of the estate. When she died her heirs sold the land to Freedmen. The Bullitt family purchased the largest share of land, 29 acres.

 1869-1871 – Further land purchases by Freedmen Slaves: Lindsey Johnson, Charles Edwards, William Todd, Robert Cole, Harvey Jones, James Evans, Adam Kelser, John and Mary Canady, and Wilkerson Bullitt.  Hamlet first called Evansville after James Evans

 1869 – Simpsonville Baptist Church gave permission for its black members to organize a separate church. Trustees were Jerry Bullitt, Wilkerson Bullitt and Beverly King, all residents of Evansville. They purchased lots 55 and 56 in Simpsonville where Liggett & Platt factory is  located along the L&N railroad tracks and built the Negro Baptist Church. Services were held there until 1946 when the congregation built a new church at Montclair.

 1872 – William and Mary Firman gave land for the community to have its own Graveyard on a hill south of the railroad. Civil War veterans were buried there. The last burial was Beard Brown.

 1877 – Louisville and Southern Railroad purchased land from Wilkerson and Jane Bullitt for $200 and laid railroad tracks in back of Evansville. (see Transportation 1888)

 1880-1920 – Lots subdivided and new families moved into Evansville – George and Mary Washington, David Alexander, Lewis and Angeline Logan, Anson Clair, William O’Bannon, Washington and Elizabeth Swingler, Beverly King, William Colbert, George and Jack Ballow, Adam Owsley, Albert Lancaster, Harrison Reid, Mr. Gruber, Allen Martin, William Colbert and Mary Fields.

 1888– Louisville Southern Railway service to Shelbyville, Harrodsburg, Lawrenceville, and Louisville was available via the Railway that through a series of mergers became the Norfolk Southern.

 1910-1930 – Interurban transportation connected Evansville/Montclair to Shelbyville, Simpsonville and Louisville via the tracks that ran along Old Shelbyville Road. One interurban station was at the corner of Scott Station Road and Shelbyville Road.

– When the interurban began service, the name was changed from Evansville to Montclair.

– Interurban streetcars were the major source of transportation from Evansville to Simpsonville. The cost was seven cents per round trip.

 1912 – Lincoln Institute opened a boarding school for African American high school students in three buildings at Lincoln ridge in September, Shelby County students sent by contract from the School Board.

1911 – Log school at Evansville consolidated with segregated Simpsonville elementary school.

1915 – Shelby County School Board took over responsibility for all black schools. Contracts let to Lincoln Institute carpentry department to building the Lincoln Model School for Simpsonville and Montclair elementary students. This graded school (1-8) was run by Lincoln Institute with advisory responsibility from Kentucky State College in Frankfort. Students from Monclair traveled by bus.

1940 – The Model School at Lincoln Ridge was closed, and a new two-story school was built at Montclair by the National Youth Administration (NYA) and the students at Lincoln Institute. The Montclair School accommodated all the African-American students in western Shelby County until desegration of the Simpsonville Elementary School in 1956.

1946 – The Negro Baptist Church at Simpsonville was moved to Montclair, because so many of its congregation lived there. While the new church was being built, services were held at the Montclair School across the road. The new church was renamed New Greater Baptist Church.

 20th Century at Montclair:

Small businesses – Mr. and Mrs. George Smith owned a restaurant and grocery. Another small business was owned by Mr. and Mrs. Clifton O’Bannon. Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Cochran, Mr. and Mrs. Charlie Ford and Mr. and Mrs. Griff Hinkle also had businesses.

Medical – Montclair did not have a doctor resident. But Dr. Maurice Rabb served many in the community with house calls or by visiting his office in Shelbyville.

Funerals – Montclair residents used the R. G. Mayes Funeral Home in Louisville and Mr. and Mrs. George Saffell of Shelbyville.

Music – Montclair had lots of musical talent, especially the Lancaster Family. And some residents belonged to groups that performed in other counties and outside the state of Kentucky.

Sports – Montclair had skilled sportsmen such as the Stoners and Marshall families.

Icon – One of the most influential people in the Montclair community was Rev. Charles Davis. He was pastor at Centennial Baptist Church at Christiansburg/Hinesville. Rev. Davis was well known for wearing his black suit, white shirt, and necktie, most of the time. He was also a gifted singer.

 Sources: Griot Maureen Ashby, Lincoln Insitute archives, Shelbyville Public Library Local History Room, Shelby County Historical Society.

Diane Perrine Coon

Left side of photo old Simpsonville Baptist Church right side of photo of colored Baptist Church at Simpsonville

 

 

Martinsville, African American hamlet in Shelbyville, KY

St. John's United Methodist Church

                         Martinsville Timeline

1803         –    The land where Martinsville developed was included in the Western Addition to Shelbyville in 1803.

1867         –    H. H. Martin sold land in City Lot 114 of the original city to three speculators named Kinkle, Frazier and Rothchild. They in turn subdivided the land into standard city lots of 100’ by 25’ and in 1871 the three also purchased six additional parcels within Lot 114.

1867-1882    According to life-long resident Mrs. Eunice Marie Payne Reed, many of the original houses in Martinsville (in Phase I) were built by white employers for their black servants and former slaves. Homes and land were given to the residents and were then passed down to their descendents.

22Apr1877 – Andy Wilson sold Elijah Marrs a tract of land in Martinsville on the street back of College Street at the SW corner of Charles Clark’s 60 foot east lot, north 121’6”, thence 121’6” south thence 60’ to the beginning, lot known as 24 and 25 on Platt                  signed by Andy and Margaret Wilson recorded 02Aug1878.         On 06Aug1878 this same lot was deed to Martha E. Gordon to satisfy a bastardy claim instituted against Elijah P. Marrs by Mattie E. Gordon.

1882  –           By 1882 when the Henry and Shelby County Atlas was compiled by D. J. Lake & Company, Martinsville was a distinct subdivision with many houses located between Ninth and Eleventh and Union and High Streets.

1896-1897 –   St. John’s Methodist Church obtained land for $125.00 on College Street in Martinsville from David H. Wayne by trustees L. Coleman, Charles Davis, Alfred Buss, Peter Gordon, Davis Riggs, F. Mason, Lazarus Howard, Henry Wilson Jr., and M. Stewart. The building was completed at a cost of $3,000.00 in 1896. It had                   30 stained glass windows, double entrance doors and a tall steeple with one of the largest bells in Shelbyville.

1920         –   Residents of Drewsville, located just off the Louisville-Shelbyville Pike, began to sell their properties to whites and move into Martinsville.

1928     –      Alice Edwards, her sister Helen Wheatley, and son Otis Ellis, owned and operated a  grocery at Tenth and High Streets in Martinsville. Otis drove an ice truck taking block ice to residents before the days of electric refrigerators. They also had a radio                    that would attract large crowds during the 1940s listening to the Joe Louis fights.

1946-1948     –   High Street School constructed at Eleventh and High Streets in Martinsville after the Bradshaw Street Graded Elementary School burned. The High Street school was built on an old city garbage dump, and served as the elementary and middle school              for African-American children in Shelbyville.

1940s-1960s – A substantial number of locally owned African-American businesses served the Martinsville area including the Kinser, Ellis, Lanter, and Duncan groceries, the Rendevous Club, Henry Robert’s Contractor business, and residents were employed    at the Creamery, Logan’s Laundry, and a local coal yard.

1966 –         The Kentucky State Legislature closed both Lincoln Institute and High Street Middle School to force full integration in the Shelbyville school system.

1981 –        Shelby Community Center Gym founded in 1981.

1984  –       Congregational Methodist Church moves into the old Saffell Memorial Hospital/Retirement Home building on Tenth Street.

1989   –      First application for federal and state housing and renewal grants for Martinsville.

1990  —      First of the rehab projects completed, Clara Lee Wilson’s house one of five homes upgraded, sidewalks improved and some new homes built.

1991 –        Phase II survey done of 31 properties in the Martinsville Gardens which by this time reached all of City lots 112, 113, 114, 115, 120 and 121. However, the survey does not indicate which properties were rented out or owner resident.

1992-1993  –   $1,255,000 in grants from federal and state agencies for major urban renewal of Martinsville. Martinsville Appreciation Day in September brings out a large crowd of local residents.

1996       –  St. John United Methodist builds a new church building and fellowship hall on Tenth Street.

Martinsville Appreciation Day 23Sep1992 Sentinel News1992 Martinsville Appreciation Day, Sentinel News

Notable Citizens of Martinsville

Reverend George Smith (1894-1895) led the effort to construct St. John’s Methodist Church on College Street in Martinsville. Services were held at the Lodge Hall by Reverend John Russell until the new church was completed in 1896.

Reverend H. H. Greene  (1926) a legend within the Methodist Church, Reverend Greene preached first at St. John’s in Martinsville in 1926 and was ordained in 1929 in the Lexington Conference; he was the grandson of a previous pastor, Rev. W. H. Bloomer (1906-1909), Rev. Greene returned to St. John’s in 1969 after a division of membership created the Congregational Methodist Church, leaving St. John’s in turmoil. Rev. Greene is credited with providing healing and renewal.

Dr. John W. Robinson, born in Shelbyville KY, ordained into Lexington Conference and served as District Superintendent, then served in the pulpit of St. Mark in Chicago and St. Mark in NYC.

Mrs. Zora Clark ,  aunt of Reverend Greene, was the first African American woman in Shelby County to receive a nursing degree.

William Baxter, restaurant owner, church pianist, and member of a traveling band.

Mrs. Verna Chinn, first person to establish a kindergarten for African American children.  She also served as Sunday School Superintendent. She also tutored children from the neighborhood after school.

Mrs. Rebecca Smock Tilley – wife of Civil War veteran Joseph Tilley, was Church School Superintendent of the St. John’s Sunday School.

Beulah Roland, church organist for many years and succeeded by her sister Dollie Roland Miller who moved to Chicago.

Ethel Dirks, president of the Choir for many years and a trustee of St. Johns.

Lula Rucker Thomas, taught elementary school at Finchville for many years and opened a catering business and a restaurant at Martinsville.

William H. Payne, Chairman of the Administration Board for 35 years, member of the Board of Trustees and the Choir, Chairman of the Board of Education for the Colored Schools prior to integration.

Ollie Murphy,Secretary of the Finance Commission, trustee, and church treasurer.

Julia P. Wilson and Mary White,  Served as Communion Stewards, active in Finance Committee, building fund, Choir president, trustee.

Etta Roland, President of the Choir for many years, active in the Church School, put on a Christmas pageant for many years.

Bessie Fleming, Recognized as Mother of the Year, seven children, 25 grandchildren and 14 great grand children.

Willie C. Fleming, First black attorney graduated from the University of Louisville.

Arthur Ashby Jr. ,First black electrician in Shelby County.

Henry Roberts,  Owned and operated a contracting business on Tenth Street.

Nettie Hawkins, President of the Choir and chairperson of the Finance Committee.

Rev. George Cottrell Sr.  Served as assistant pastor.

Rev. Robert Marshall Sr.  Served as pastor when the congregation was deciding to rebuild and relocate.

Alice Edwards, Helen Wheatley, Otis Ellis, operated a grocery at Tenth and High Streets. Otis drove the ice truck bringing block ice to residents of Martinsville. And large crowds would come to their store to listen to the Joe Louis fights on their radio during the 1940s.

 Mack, Lee Nor (1914-1985) Lee Nor Mack was a contractor who in 1965 was the first African American councilman to be elected in Shelbyville, KY since 1904. He served as a councilman from 1967-1985. He was a veteran of WWII. Lee Nor Mack Street is named in his honor. Lee Nor Mack died in Jefferson County, December 7, 1985.

Moses Dale  (November 1971) land donated by the L&N Railroad on Union Street was developed into a mini-park and named for Moses Dale, long time resident of Martinsville  associated with youth programs.

Sources:  Griot Mattie Bray, longtime resident of Martinsville, and newspaper articles from the Shelbyville Sentinel and a short history of St. John Methodist Church.

Martinsville community Gym
Martinsville community Gym

Country Stores Shelby County Kentucky

Carriss Store Southville May 2007 cropped
Carriss Store, Southville, Shelby County, KY

Businesses of Shelby County Kentucky

Town Location Pop Type Occupation Name Date Notes Source
Alfarata LaMasters Pct. Drug Store Druggist Dr. E. T. Ellison 1882 1882 Atlas
Bagdad General Store Merchant James Baskett 1882 born Shelby Co; Dealer in Fancy Dry Goods, Clothing, Groceries, Drugs, Hardware, Boots, Shoes, Lumber, Grain and Coal. Highest market price paid for country produce. 1882 Atlas
Bagdad General Store Merchant Webber & Baskett 1882 Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Capts, Queensware, Hardware, Drugs, Patent Medicines, etc., and a general stock of goods at lowest prices. Also Undertaker. A full line of Caskets, Cases of the latest style. Shrouding of all kinds kept in Fine Hearses kept ready for all occasions. Orders promptly filled. 1882 Atlas
Bagdad P.M. RR & Express Agent R. J. Eddins 1882 born Indiana, came to Bagdad in 1854 1882 Atlas
Bagdad Grist Mill Flouring Mills Bagdad Roller Mills, Inc. 1884 Sam, Will and Jim Bayne, sold to Charles Bates in 1909; sold to Guest and Morgan Scobee in 1912/1913. Bank forclosed. In 1914 R. L. Harrison bought the mill. Alice Barnett, New History
Bagdad Deposit Bank Bank The Peoples Bank of Bagdad, later acquired by the Deposit Bank of Pleasureville and then Republic Bank; In March 1996 acquired by Citizens Union Bank. 1888 Presidents: J. Baskett, S. H. Bryant, William Connell, B. D. Estes, James Young. Virgil Samples longtime cashier and chief operating officer. William E. Matthews, New History
Bagdad on L&N RR 10 mi SE of Shelbyville 400 General Store Merchant Bailey & Cornell 1895 Hawes
Bagdad Jewelry Store Jeweler S. G. Bryant 1895 Hawes
Bagdad Lumber Store Dealer J. M. Denton & Sons 1895 Hawes
Bagdad General Store Merchant Long & Goodwin 1895 Hawes
Bagdad General Store Merchant A. L. Woods 1895 and Hotel Hawes
Bagdad Drug Store Druggist John W. Hieatt 1920 Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant Isaiah Bryant 1920 Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant Lee Long 1920 Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant Curtis Austin 1920 Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant Clarence Austin 1920 Census
Bagdad Town Flour Mill Merchant Miller Robert L. Harrison 1920 Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant William Prewitt 1920 Census
Bagdad Hatton General Store Merchant Jackson Perkins 1920 Beech Ridge area Census
Bagdad Hatton General Store Clerk Virgil Perkins 1920 Beech Ridge area Census
Bagdad Town General Store Merchant Leslie Samples 1928 Built a store; prior had run a market truck and rented space in Bagdad. Died in 1941 leaving store to his wife and children Monta, Ruby, Selbert, and Marvin. Store sold to Carl Tindall and then Lewis Young. Ruby Samples Bohannon, New History
Bagdad Town on Rt 395 Petonya – Elmburg Road Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills Bagdad Roller Mills, Inc.                              R. L. Harrison & Son 1929 See predecessor mill from 1884; Coleman and Miller joined the firm. R. L. Harrison died in 1940; Miller Harrison ran business until 1975; Julian Roberts president, Charles Davis VP; Alice H. Barnett sec, and E. R. Weakley treas. 1970s discontinued flour and corn mean; focused on poultry and livestock feed in bags and local grains, wheat and soybeays. In 1995 a high grade horse feed added. Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Bagdad Town Christiansburg Pct, District 14 East Hotel Proprietor Abe and Gertrude Bonannon 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Town Civil Servant RFD Carrier Grover Blaydes 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Town Barber Shop Barber Thomas G. Smither 1930 Owns store 1930 census
Bagdad Town Truck Driver Gilbert Riddle 1930 Owns truck 1930 census
Bagdad Town Hardware Store Merchant Robert E. Stratton 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Town Bank Bookkeeper Elizabeth Johnson 1930 Mrs. James L. Johnson 1930 census
Bagdad Town Driver School Bus Andrew Johnson 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Town Flour Mill Laborer John Dubrey 1930 Negro 1930 census
Bagdad Town Laundry Laundress Cora Dubrey 1930 Negro 1930 census
Bagdad Town Flour Mill Bookkeeper Addie Wiley 1930 Mrs. Hebron Wiley 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road RR Telegraph Operator Earl R. Hume 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road Truck Driver Robert S. Hudson 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road L&N Claims Agent Richard R. Mayhall 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road Flour Mill Millwright James R. Mayhall 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road Flour Mill Millwright Charles W. Mayhall 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road Telegraph Operator Lennie P. Wright 1930 1930 census
Bagdad Bagdad & Christiansburg Road General Store Merchant Charlie A. Shields 1930 1930 census
Chestnut Grove General Store Merchant J. W. Green 1880 and Post Office 1882 Atlas
Chestnut Grove 8 mi N of Shelbyville 75 General Store Merchant Rockwell & Wise 1895 Hawes
Chestnut Grove General Store Merchant J. W. Green 1895 and Post Office Hawes
Chestnut Grove Doaks Pct: Smithfield Pike General Store Merchant Henry T. Wise 1920 Census
Christiansburg Tavern Tavern Daniel K. Mitchell and Shannon Reed 1838 14May1838 application for license; Daniel K. Mitchell and John M. Ogden applied in 11May1840 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Christiansburg Tavern Tavern W. H. Wilson and James Sprigg 1838 14May1838 application for license George Ann Carpenter, New History
Christiansburg Tavern Tavern John W. Kyle and John R. Beckely 1840 04Sep1840 application for license George Ann Carpenter, New History
Christiansburg General Store Merchant J. W. Demaree 1882 north of Six Mile Creek 1882 Atlas
Christiansburg General Store Merchant J. F. and A. J. Wilcoxon 1882 Hinesville at Railroad 1882 Atlas
Christiansburg General Store Salesman James L. Rockwell 1920 Census
Christiansburg on L&N RR 8 mi N of Shelbyville 150 General Store Merchant L.W. Demaree 1895 Hawes
Christiansburg General Store Merchant Rainbo & Venable 1895 Hawes
Christiansburg Grocery Grocer Mrs. M. A. Thomas 1895 Hawes
Christiansburg General Store Merchant J. F. Wilcoxen 1895 and Confectionery Hawes
Christiansburg Town General Store Merchant Jesse Baker 1920 Census
Christiansburg Town Grocery Merchant George Shipman 1920 north of Six Mile Creek Census
Christiansburg Town Grocery Clerk Robert Graves 1920 Census
Clay Village Town Tavern Tavern Tyler Elliot and Robert Saunders 1837 20Jul1837 application for license;  12Aug1839 application from Tyler Elliot and C. Saunders George Ann Carpenter, New History
Clay Village Town Tavern Tavern Altert Saunders and Robert Saunders 1838 12Nov1838 application for license; also 11Nov1839 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Clay Village Town Tavern Tavern Peter Minor and Jefferson T. Doss 1942 12Dec1842 application for license; 1844 applied for a license in Shelbyville George Ann Carpenter, New History
Clay Village Saw Mill Saw Mills Robert Carlton 1870 1870 Manufacturing Census
Clay Village Jeptha Creek Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills Clark & Moore 1880 1880 Manufacturing Census
Clay Village Peytona General Store Merchant D. W. Burnett 1882 Dealer in Staple Groceries, Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Tinware, Notions, etc., etc. 1882 Atlas
Clay Village Sewing Machine Agent R. T. Baker 1882 1882 Atlas
Clay Village Town General Store Merchant A. Mitchell 1920 Census
Clay Village 6 mi E of Shelbyville 300 Grocery Grocer John Fulton 1895 Hawes
Clay Village Notions Merchant Miss F. C. Malone 1895 Hawes
Clay Village Bagdad-Waddy Pike General Hauling Teamster R.E. Hansbrough 1920 Census
Clay Village State Pike Truck Line Transfer Man Elmo Hankins 1920 Census
Clay Village State Pike Grocery Merchant Morris Clark 1920 Census
Clay Village State Pike Farm Implements Salesman Raymond Sleadd 1920 Census
Clay Village Truck Line Teamster Alexander Ray 1920 Census
Clay Village Hemp Ridge Rd Grocery Merchant William Pigg 1920 Census
Cropper General Store Merchant J. W. Demaree & Bro 1882 Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, Hardware, Agricultural Implements, Paints, Oils, Putty, Glass, Coal Oil, Pure Spices, Druggists’ Groceries, Patent Medicines, etc. Our stock of Ladies Dress Goods, Cassimeres, etc., is complete and will be sold very low. Also dealer in live stock. 1882 Atlas
Cropper on L&N RR 10 mi N of Shelbyville 275 Coal Supply Dealer R. T. Burnett 1895 RR Agent and Postmaster Hawes
Cropper Meat Market Butcher R. L. McDade 1895 Hawes
Cropper Meat Market Butcher Stivers & Rinker 1895 Hawes
Cropper General Store Merchant Voiers & Perry 1895 Hawes
Cropper Deposit Bank Bank The Cropper Bank 1905 Ben Allen Thomas II, president; bank failed in 1921 when cashier absconded with much of the bank’s funds. Thomas had to put up twice his investment in indemnity. William E. Matthews, New History
Cropper General Merchandise Salesman John T. Miles 1920 Census
Cropper Railroad Ave Farm Implements Merchant William McCann 1920 Census
Cropper Railroad Ave General Merchandise Merchant Robert Perry 1920 Census
Cropper Railroad Ave General Merchandise Merchant Albert C. Thomas 1920 Census
Cropper Railroad Ave Transfer Line Driver Alonzo D. Mitchell 1920 Census
Cropper Railroad Ave General Merchandise Salesman George W. Smith 1920 Census
Cropper Pleasureville Rd General Merchandise Salesman Ollie Brown 1920 Census
Cropper Pleasureville Rd General Merchandise Dealer Gayle B. Thomas 1920 Census
Cropper Elmburg Road General Merchandise Dealer Theodore L. Jackson 1920 Jackson’s store replaced an earlier store from 1914-1919; T. L. Jackson returned from running a store at Lockport. Partner was J. B. Smith. Called the Smith and Jackson General Merchandise store. Smith died and in the mid 1940s became the T. L. Jackson General Merchandise and ran until 1972. Purchased wholesale from the Carter Dry Goods Store in Louisville. Census; Mary Thomas Johnson, New History
Cropper Pleasureville Rd Goodrich’s Store Bookkeeper Warren Banta 1920 Census
Cropper Pleasureville Rd Tab Co Bookkeeper Victor Douthitt 1920 Census
Cropper Grist Mill Meal and Feed O. B. Montford 1929 one white employee Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Figg Pleasureville Rd Dry Goods Store Salesman Ella Massie 1920 Census
Finchville LaMasters Pct. General Store Merchant S. O Mitchell 1882 born Fayette Co, came to Shelby Co in 1873 1882 Atlas
Finchville 8 mi from Shelbyville General Store Merchant E. C. Figg 1895 Hawes
Finchville on L&N RR 7.5 mi S of Shelbyville 50 General Store Merchant Cain & Co 1895 Hawes
Finchville General Store Merchant W. H. Veech 1895 Hawes
Finchville Brick Bldg adjacent to Robertson’s Country Hams Deposit Bank Bank The Bank of Finchville until 1931 when accounts acquired by The Deposit Bank of Shelbyville 1904 In 1931 bank president was Gustavous T. Duvall, W. C. Winlock the cashier. The Depost Bank of Shelbyville also failed during the Depression when Otho Vardaman embezzled the funds and went to prison but the funds were never recovered. William E. Matthews, New History
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville General Merchandise Merchant Henry Hedden, then Albert Riester 1909 Albert Riester bought store from Henry Hedden in 1923; His daughter Alberta Riester Yancey and her brother Leo Riester helped with the store. Paul Riester ran a milk route but returned to store when Leo retired. Store sold in 1968 to Herbert Travis, then the Slaughter family. 1920 Census; New History
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville General Store Salesman Ethel Hounton 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Hauling Truck Driver Steve Hounton 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Hauling Truck Driver Ray Hounton 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Hauling Truck Driver Warren Hounton 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Dressmaker Dressmaker Laura Ballard 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville General Merchandise Merchant Lou Hedden 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Farm Implements Merchant B. W. Whitaker 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville General Merchandise Merchant Fred Robertson 1920 Census
Finchville Shelbyville/Taylorsville Grain Dealer Merchant F. D. Robertson 1920 Census
Flag Fork Jacksonville Pct General Store Merchant A. A. Bailey 1882 born in Franklin Co, to Shelby Co in 1864 1882 Atlas
Graefensburg Hardinsville Tavern Tavern James Hackley and William Bullard 1837 13Nov1837 application for license; Richard Pemberton and William Bullard applied for license 12Nov1838; Richard Pemberton and Calvin Saunders in 09Dec1839 and 10Jan1842. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct Combined Saw & Grist Mill Saw and Grist Mill B. M. Campton 1870 1870 Manufacturing Census
Graefensburg Grist Mill Flouring Mills James F. Sorts 1876 1880 Manufacturing Census
Graefensburg Water Grist Mill Flouring Mills R. M. Riggs 1870 1880 Manufacturing Census
Graefensburg General Store Merchant R. H. Wilmot 1882 came into area in 1866: Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Tinware, Queensware, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, Notions, etc, and a general stock at lowest prices for cash or produce 1882 Atlas
Graefensburg Grist Mill Flouring Mills R.M. Wiggs 1890s Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Graefensburg 12 mi from Shelbyville, 8 mi from Frankfort 125 General Store Merchant Leonard Blythe 1895 and Postmaster Hawes
Graefensburg Grocery Grocer A. J. Gibbs 1895 Hawes
Graefensburg Meat Market Butcher H. B. Lowen 1895 Hawes
Graefensburg Goods in County Peddlar Jake Thomas 1920 Census
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct General Merchandise Merchant Homer W. and James E. Blythe 1920 Census
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct General Merchandise Merchant Andrew J. and Lucy B. Gibbs 1920 Census
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct Transfer Line Truck Driver Leonard Gibbs 1920 Owner Census
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct Transfer Line Truck Driver Della C. Hamilton 1920 Hired hand Census
Graefensburg Hardinsville Pct Transfer Line Truck Driver Sam J. Baugh 1920 Hired hand Census
Harrisonville Connorsville Tavern Tavern Henry B. Landers and Joseph Hackworth 1837 13Nov1837 application for license George Ann Carpenter, New History
Harrisonville Tavern Tavern Robert R. Baker and James Harrison 1843 11Sep1843 application for license George Ann Carpenter, New History
Harrisonville Saw Mill Saw Mills Lewis N. Bellefonte 1880 Also the Carpenter Brothers 1880 Manufacturing Census
Harrisonville Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills B. A. Sampson, S. N. Bellefonte 1880s skilled workers $2/day, unskilled 75 cents/day 1880 Manufacturing Census
Harrisonville General Store Merchant Stone & Sampson 1882 Dry Goods, Groceries, Hats, Caps, Boots and Shoes, Queensware, Tinware, Notions and Fancy Goods, and a large variety of articles usually found in a first class country store. And Stock Trader —  J. J. Sampson and William S Stone.Stone was born in Nelson Co and came to Shelby Co in 1845 1882 Atlas
Harrisonville General Store Merchant Burnett & Easley 1882 Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, Queensware, Tinware, Notions, Fancy Goods found in a first class country store. 1882 Atlas
Harrisonville Grist Mill Flouring Mills Squire Brown 1890s Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Harrisonville 13 mi SE of Shelbyville, 5 mi from Waddy 115 Undertaker Undertaker J. W. Catlett 1895 Hawes
Harrisonville Hardinsville Pct Transfer Line Truck Driver Jesse B. Roberts 1920 Census
Harrisonville
Harrisonville Town Grocery Grocer Harvey H. Elder 1920 Census
Harrisonville Town Dry Goods Store Merchant James J. Wyatt 1920 Census
Harrisonville Town Undertaker Undertaker John Catlett 1920 Census
Harrisonville Town Transit Hauling Truck Driver Francis J. Elder 1920 Census
Hatton General Store Merchant Stone & Reddish 1895 Hawes
Hatton on L&N RR 10 mi E of Shelbyville 25 Grocery Grocer A. M. Allen 1895 Hawes
Jacksonville Grist Mill Flouring Mills Gale Mill 1870 1870 Manufacturing Census
Jacksonville Saw Mill Saw Mills 1870 Tilman Johnson and David Shuck 1870 Manufacturing Census
Jacksonville (listed as Bagdad) Jacksonville Pct General Store Merchant T D. Kesler 1882 Merchant, Miller, Trader, Farmer — born in FranklinCo, to Shelby Co in 1864 1882 Atlas
Jacksonville Frankfort-New Castle Rd Grocery Salesman C. R. Fortner 1920 Census
Jacksonville Frankfort-New Castle Rd Grocery Saleswoman Sallie Johnson 1920 Census
Mt. Eden Southville Pct. Undertaker Undertaker C. G. Freeman 1882 Dealer in all kinds of Furniture. Keeps on hand at all times a full supply of burial cases. Office and warerooms at Mt. Eden, Ky 1882 Atlas
Mt. Eden Southville Pct. General Store Merchant Maranda Hedden 1882 1882 Atlas
Mt. Eden General Store Merchant Roberts & Wright 1895 Hawes
Mt. Eden 12 mi S of Shelbyville in SPENCER Co 250 General Store Merchant Ash & Co 1895 Hawes
Mt. Eden Undertaker Undertaker C. J. Freeman 1895 Hawes
Mt. Eden General Store Merchant W. J. Hardesty 1895 Hawes
Mt. Eden Dressmaker Dressmaker Mattie J. Heady 1920 Census
Mt. Eden Mt. Eden Pike Dry Goods Store Merchant M. Morton Thomas 1920 Census
Mt. Eden Shelby Street General Store Merchant Leonard D. Hardisty 1920 also Shebourne Hardisty, L. R. Hardisty Census
Mt. Eden center of Mt. Eden General Store Merchant Hallie Watts 1928 Employees lived in Harrisonville and walked over to Mt. Eden. Watts ran a market truck through the country roads. James Hardesty ran cream and egg testing station in the basement. Later owners were Dove Temple, Gratch Brown, Marvin Hardesty, John and Joann Bain, operators Richard and Jaylayne Watson. Store burned in 2002. Joann Bain, New History
Scott Station General Store Merchant S. R. Hawser 1895 Hawes
Scott Station on L&N RR 4.5 mi W of Shelbyville 50 General Store Merchant J. M. Crary 1895 Hawes
Scott Station General Store Merchant Eugene and Lula Sewell 1923 Small building in front of their house lot, dry goods and grocery staples, kerosene. Help from Lula Moore, Mrs. James Heady, Lillian Wood, Les and Mary Frances Sewell Bailey. Ran until 1974. Mary Frances Sewell Bailey, New History
Shelby County Grist Mill Mill William Helm 1793 Guist Creek just N of 3-mile bridge on US 60. A moth later Robert Tyler constructed a grist mill one mile upstream Geo. Willis and Edward D. Shinnick, Charles D. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Grist Mill Mill Benjamin Logan etc. 1793 to 1796 Benjamin Logan on Bullskin Creek, Col. Whitaker s of Shelbyville; Elijah Carr on Mulberry Creek; Samuel Shannon near Shelbyville Water works; Moses Hall who transferred his ownership to his son David Stevenson Hall. Geo. Willis and Edward D. Shinnick, Charles D. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Head of Clear Creek on road going to Henry Co Tavern and Inn Tavern Abraham Reece 1798 in March 1806 Jack Davitt received permission to continue the tavern in the place Reece had kept. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelby County Grist Mill Mill Richard Taylor 1799 Brashears Creek Geo. Willis and Edward D. Shinnick, Charles D. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County n of Jeptha Knob, 5 mi east of Shelbyville Tavern and Inn Tavern Adam Middleton 1800 Cross Keys Inn: Between 1800 and 1823 served 10,000 customers; in 1830 sons of Adam Middleton – Adam and Robert –  added an L extensionto Cross Keys Inn; It was in the family until 1919 when it was sold to Joe “Buck Headen”; the banks took over in 1930; a consortium bought land packets in August 1930; Virginia and Estes Snider got the inn and water rights and 16 acres near the inn; they restored the inn and served fine restaurant food; on 12May1934 a raging fire took the inn. Only the slave quarters remained. Calvin T. Schmidt, New History
Shelby County Tavern Tavern George Smith 1806 Application in April 1806 for his house George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelby County on Road leading to mouth of the KY River Tavern Tavern Benjamin Roberts 1806 Application in May 1806 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelby County Tavern Tavern George Smith 1806 Applied for license in his house  July 1806.
Shelby County 12 miles from Shelbyville on the main road from Shelbyville to Bardstown Tavern Tavern William Jewel 1807 Applied for license in May 1807 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelby County Tavern Tavern John Shannon 1809 Applied for license in August 1809 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelby County Zaring Mill Road near Clear Creek Bridge Water Grist Mill Flouring Mills Alfred Zaring 1820 Operated until 1874 when Alfred Zaring built a steam mill on North Seventh Street in Shelbyville, then sold it to J. D. Guthrie who operated it as Guthrie Bros. then sold at public auction in 1904 to Samuel Monroe Long. Betty Matthews and Charles B. Long Sr., New History
Shelby County Clay Street Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills Alfred Zaring and T. B. Caldwell 1840-1904 Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Branch Bank Deposit Bank William Bullock, pres. 1850 1,000 shares of stock to Shelby Co. citizens, directors: Mark Hardin, B. F. Dupuy (160 share), John Newland +50 shares, Jacob Castleman, George Waller, Isaac Watkins +50 shares, John Willett, James Moore. John Gwathney +50 shares, Steele & Luckett +50 shares. Geo. Willis and William E. Matthews
Shelby County Mt. Eden Pike Grist Mill Flouring Mills Backbone Mill 1850 R. D. Waters 1850 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Jeptha Creek Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1850 John Carson, Robert Baird, Logan Brown 1850 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Clay Street, Shelbyville Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1850 T. B. Caldwell 1850 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1850 L. Seamon, J. W. Bung, T. Cardin, A. R. Johnson, A. R. Zaring 1850 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Saw Mill Saw and Grist Mill 1850 R. D. Waters,  J. Stone Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills 1850 John Hopkins, Richard Gormy Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Saw Mill Saw Mills 1850 C. Clankers, A. Shannon, G. Williams, J. Wilson, D. C. Hagerman, T. Gamsat, T. Moore, A. R. Johnson Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1860 J. W. and William Sloan, and Alfred Harrington Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Steam Combined Mills Saw and Grist Mill 1860 L. J. Matthews, J. W. & W. Logan, L. Beatty 1860 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Harrington Mill Road Steam Combined Mills Saw and Grist Mill Alfred Harrington & Barringer 1870 New $3,200 investment Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Steam Combined Mills Saw and Grist Mill 1870 Johnson & Shannon, W. F. Maddox, Thomas and Garland Wittering, Ruben F. Fields, William Sloan 1870 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1870 J. W. Zaring, Thomas B. Tacker, Alfred Harrington, Bell and Company, Logan and Company, Henry R. Johnson, Johnson and Shauman, W. F. Maddle, John D. McDaniel, C. M. Sampson Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Miscellaneous Creeks Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills 1880 William & Beckmill, S. L. Sanders 1880 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Bullskin Creek Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills Benjamin Logan 1880 1880 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Fox Run Creek Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills Joseph Sansly 1880 1880 Manufacturing Census
Shelby County Guist Creek Water Grist Mill Flouring Mills N. D. Scearce, Rogers & Russell 1880s Scearce paid $100 in wages, Rogers & Russell earned income of $25,000 a year. Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Roller Grist Mill Flouring Mills Climax Roller Mills 1929 One of only 3 mills still operating in Shelby County; Climax employed 10 white and 2 colored employees. Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelby County Fox Run Rd to 1946 then Second & Main in Shelbyville Dairy Dairy Clarence Green & Sons 1940 Opened milk-processing plant in Shelbyville in 1946 at Main & Second Streets. Made cheese until 1965 when Cudahay Inc. moved to Harrodsburg. Roger Green, New History
Shelbyville Main Street, Lot 26, next to and west of courthouse, known as McGrath Block, J. H. Hartofrd and A. Hollenback’s lots. Tavern and Inn Tavern John Felty 1793 deed 21May1793 from William Shannon, established a tavern there; in July 1794 William Shannon and John Felty argued and threw a stone and a dirk respectively. Both died of their wounds. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelbyville Tavern and Inn Tavern Isaac Watkins 1800 Watkins Inn from 1800-1820 J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Republican Register 1804 Mentioned in “Littell’s Laws” Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern Daniel McClelland 1805 Applied for license in October 1805, May 1808, and with G. Leonard George in McClelland’s house in July 1809 and with Abraham Smith in December 1809..
Shelbyville Road from Frankfort to Middletown Tavern Tavern John Booth 1806 August 1806 application for tavern license. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern Henry Atherton 1807 Applied for license in 1807 and again in 1809 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern Michael Speck 1807 Applied for license 12Oct1807 George Ann Carpenter, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Daily Union 1809 Also listed in KY Newspapers in 1880 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelbyville Kentuckian 1814 Printed full text of treaties with Indian nations Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern William Hardin 1820 Eagle Tavern from 1820 to 1823 J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern S. Buckner 1822 Golden Beehive Tavern J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Tavern and Inn Tavern John S. Robson 1824 Sign of Bee Hive Inn 1824-1826 J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern Robert Brenham 1825 Brenham’s Tavern J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Kentucky Advocate 1827 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyvile Newspaper Newspaper Public Ledger 1830 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper Political Examiner & General Recorder 1832 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Baptist Banner 1835 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby News 1840 Editors: Morgan Torr and Henri F. Middleton ardent supporters of Henry Clay and the Whig Party; Torr died in 1842 and Middleton continued until 1865 when John T. Hearn purchase it and renamed it The Shelby Sentinel. Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Steam Grist Mill Mill Samuel Brittian and John Carver 1840s Gen Superintendent Benjamin Jackman, could grind 30 to 40 bushels of wheat per hour and 50 to 60 bushels of corn per hour. Closed in 1909. Edward D. Shinnick, Charles D. Hockensmith, New History
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern H. S. Hastings 1847 Farmer’s House J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern J. S. Murphey 1849 Washington Hall J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Tavern Tavern Merritt Redding 1852 Redding House J. Winston Coleman State Coach Days in the Bluegrass
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby Sentinel 1865 John T. Hearn purchased the first The Shelby News Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville SE Corner of Sixth and Main Sts until 2001. Bank One continued a branch on Boone Station Road. Deposit Bank Bank Josephus H. Wilson, president, then Gordon Logan, J. C. Beckham, Matthews Hall, Richard Randolph, Jack Frazier, Ruby Stivers Conn, Bob Rigney, Bob Taylor. 1869 Chartered as Bank of Ashland in 1856; Bank of Shelbyville in 1869, Liberty National Bank of Louisville ion 1988, Bank One of Indianapolis in 1994; Bank One acquired by J.P. Chase Morgan. William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby Courant 1870 Emmett Logan editor until 1877; Logan then went on to become editor of The Louisville Times. Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville NW Corner of Sixth and Main for 115 years. Deposit Bank Bank Farmers & Traders Bank, remodeled 1943, new vault 1949; purchased The Cleveland Barber Shop and Mose Ruben Dry Goods Store in 1956 and Alice Hollenbach home the former Maidie’s Dress Shop, merged with Citizens Union Bank in August 1986. 1871 Incorporated 20Mar1871; presidents – J. L.Caldwell, John A. Middleton, W. T. Beckham, R. A. Campbell, Charles F. Beard, William A. Scearce, Coleman Wright, Elmo Head, J. L. Coots, Charles F. Clifton. Original Directors-J. D. Beard, George Smith, William Waddy, J. T. Ballard, J. W. Downs, J. P. Foree, W.A. Jones, Thomas Hansbrough, George A. and J. M. McGrath; directors in 1901 – John A. Middleton, W. S. Thomas, John Boswell, John A. Thomas, W. T. Wallace, Charles S. Weakley, W. T. Beckham, Emmett Harbison. William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville Clear Creek Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills W. A.R. Logan 1880s largest mill in Shelby Co; 18 hr days May to Nov, 12 hr days Nov to May; skilled workers $1.80/day, others 86 cents/day. 10,000 pds wheat flour and 540,000 pds corn meal, and 730,000 pds of feed Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelbyville Water Saw Mill Saw Mills Nathaniel Scearce 1880 1880 Manufacturing Census
Shelbyville Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills James Zaring 1880s 7 male employees, 12 hrs a day, 6 days/wk. Skilled workers $2.53 a day, others 60 cents per day. 1880 Manufacturing Census
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby Sentinel 1886 Alf E. Ellis  editor sold to M.T. Carpenter and John C. Cooper, Mr. Kinkle replaced Carpenter and owned the newspaper in 1886. John Corzine was foreman and associate editor until 1886 he started The Shelby News. Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby Times 1886 Fletcher Poynter and Charlie Harwood Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Republican 1886 John P. Cozine shut it down after little support; then started The Shelby News in 1886 Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Newspaper Newspaper The Shelby News 1886 John P. Cozine quit The Shelby Sentinel to start The Shelby News and they competed for the next 100 years. Sally B. Roach Nicol, New History
Shelbyville Main Street Trust Company then in 1911 opened Savings and Commercial business Bank Shelby County Trust Company to 1911 when changed to Shelby County Trust & Banking Company. Acquired Citizens Bank of Waddy in 1955. Opened several branches. Merged into Commonwealth Bank & Trust in 2002 but retained its charter. 1887 President – J. A. Weakley, P. J. Foree, J. C. Beckham, C. S. Weakley. Founding directors – G. W. Logan, R. A. Smith, J. A. Weakley, Charles Kinkel, W. J. Thomas, J. C. Beckham, Shelby Vannata, John A. Middleton. Cashiers – A. C. Long, J. E. Hoodenpyle, Lloyd Pollard (1930-1961 when became president). Presidents from 1918 to 1981 – W. J. Thomas, E. B. Beard, A. C. Long, Dr. W. P. Hughes, Robert E. Matthews, Lloyd Pollard, Ben G. Matthews. Darrell Wells purchased majority interest in 1981, then Jack Raglan, Payton Wells, John Brenzel as directors, CEO Perry Day, president Bobby Hudson then Pat Sullivan. William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville 527 Main Street until 1973 when moved to 827  Street until 1996. Citizens Bank became Citizens Union Bank; merged with Bank of Simpsonville in 1970. Bank Charles E. Kinkle, president, J. C. Burnett first clerk. 1888 Successive presidents: James Guthrie, P. J. Foree, W. H. Tipton, Charles A. Randolph, Stewart McBrayer, Middleton Phillips, John S. Mathis, and Billie Wade.
Shelbyville Main Street betw. 5th and 6th Clothing Store Merchant Caldwell Bros 1882 Dealers in Fine Clothing, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, Gent’s Furnishing Goods, Trunks, Valises, etc. Fine Carpets a specialty. Fine Clothing to order. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant Cowerd, Griffith & Co 1882 Clothiers. Dealers in Clothing, Shoirts, Collars, Cuffs, Underwear, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes and Overshoes, etc. A splendid stock of Gent’s Furnishing Goods and Jewelry. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer John P. Allen Jr. 1882 Coal dealer, Pittsburgh, Kentucky, Lump, Nut and Black coal for sale. Newly erected sheds and Coal kept Dry and Clean. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer George W. Head 1882 Dealer in Coal of all kinds at lowest market prices. Orders solicited and will receive prompt attention. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Caldwell & Burnett 1882 Wholesale and retail Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Crockery, Glass and Queensware, Wood and willoware, Nails and Hardware, Farm Wagons, Implements and Machinery. The best prices paid for farm produce. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville General Store Merchant Schooler & Frederick 1882 J. E. Schooler, LI. S. Frederick – Dealers in Groceries, Hardware, Agricultural Implements, etc. Agents for Studebaker Wagons, Champion Machines, Columbus Buggies and Oliver Chilled Plows. All bills due January and July 1st. Implements and Seeds cash. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Main Street near Bank General Store Merchant J. V. Boyd & Son 1882 Dealers in Groceries, Provisions, hardware, Produce etc. Highest market price paid for Country Produce and Hides. Field seeds a specialty. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Main Street General Store Merchant Peter Crapster & Co 1882 Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Bookseller, Stationery and News Agents. Dealer in Blank and Miscellaneous Books, Sheet Music, fine stationery. Cigars, Tobacco, etc. 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Flour Mill Merchant G. W. Logan 1882 Merchant Miller 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Drug Store Druggist J. M. Owen & Son 1882 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Stationery Merchant H. F. Sayles 1882 and Job Printer 1882 Atlas
Shelbyville Grist Mill Flouring Mills J. D. Guthrie’s Sons Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Shelbyville South side of Main Street just East of Clear Creek across from the Gas Plant Ice Supply Glacier Ice Company 1891 Later became The Shelbyville Ice Company Cleveland-Matthews; 1892 Sanborn
Shelbyville 7th Street north of College and L&N Tracks just NW of the L&N Depot Grist Mill Climax Mills & Gain Elevators J.D. Guthrie’s Sons 1892 Charles d. Hockensmith; Cleveland-Matthews; 1892 Sanborn
Shelbyville Main Street betw. 4th and 5th going through to Washington Livery Stables Commercial Horses and Buggies Brown & Beard Livery Stables 1886 Still shows on the 1916 Sanborn Fire Map 1886 Sanborn
Shelbyville East Main Street on the South East side of Clear Creek Bridge across the creek from Glacier Ice Co and the Gas Plant Grist Mill Flouring Mills 1890s Banner Roller Mills Charles d. Hockensmith, New History; Cleveland-Matthews; 1892 Sanborn
Shelbyville General Store Merchant J. H. Morris 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville on L&N and So Ry 31 mi from Louisville 3,500 Meat Market Butcher Jacob Abraham 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Washington Adams 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer John P. Allen 1895 also Lime, etc Hawes
Shelbyville Agricultural Implements Merchant Leslie Arnett 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant Ash & Hedden 1895 William C. Ash, Samuel C. Hedden Hawes
Shelbyville Millinery Milliner Mrs. Margaret Ballou 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Fish, Oysters Merchant Jacob Becker & Son 1895 Fish, Oysters and Vegetables, Cash Paid for Hides, etc — Jacob and Jacob L. Becker Hawes
Shelbyville Liquor Store Merchant Bemiss & Thompson 1895 Fine Wines, Liquor, & Cigars — John Bemiss, James W. Thompson Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant E. Bennheim 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Meat Market Butcher E. C. & J. B. Blumer 1895 Edward C. and J. Baker Blumer Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. Katie A. Blumer 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Stoves Merchant Bowland & Heaton 1895 Theodore R. Bowland, John s. Heaton Hawes
Shelbyville Jewelry Store Jeweler James W. Brown 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Sewing Machines Merchant Robert M. Brown 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer John Bruce 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Transportation City Transfer Bryants Baggage & City Transfer 1895 John H. Bryant Agent So Ry Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Tailor William Buckstruck 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant Caldwell & Long 1895 Benjamin B. Caldwell, Campbell Long Hawes
Shelbyville Stoves Merchant John M. Casey 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Shoe Store Merchant L. Chowning & Con 1895 and Gents Furnishings — Louis and Alfred E. Chowning Hawes
Shelbyville Jewelry Store Jeweler Richard H. Clark 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Florist Merchant Maijoire L. Diebourg 1895 and Grocer Hawes
Shelbyville Poultry Supplier Mrs. Milton Elliston 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant Bernard Engle 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Robert L. Ethington 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Wall Paper Store Merchant Finnell & Mathews 1895 Howard T. Finnell, Charles Mathews Hawes
Shelbyville Transportation Baggage & Transfer John L. Floyd 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville General Store Merchant Fullenwider & Glass 1895 Chalmers E. Fullenwider, James V. Glass Hawes
Shelbyville Poultry Supplier Mrs. M. M. Gibson 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Ice Supply Dealer Glacier Ice Co 1895 R. A. Smith, pres, John I. Logan, sec-treas Hawes
Shelbyville Jewelry Store Jeweler Max Greener 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Drug Store Druggist Charles C. Hall 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Florist Merchant Edward P. Hall 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Undertaker Funeral Director Henry Hall & Co 1895 also Furniture Dealers — Henry Hall, Esther Temple Society Hawes
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer Hall & Stewart 1895 Coal, Lumber, etc. — William H. Hall, James S. Stewart Hawes
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer Marion H. Harbison 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Miss Mary Harris 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Confectionery Merchant John T. Hastings 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Misses M. F. and M.E. Hedges 1895 Maria F. and Mary E. Hedges Hawes
Shelbyville Millinery Milliner Mrs. Bertha Hilbroner 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Bakery Baker Albert Hellenbach 1895 Baker, Restaurant, Confectionery, Fine Cigars and Tobacco Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. Ella Howerton 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Miss Sue C. Jenkins 1895 Perfect fit guaranteed Hawes
Shelbyville Confectionery Merchant Mrs. W. H. Jesse 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Books Merchant Sidney S. Kirk 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. Emma Long 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Shoe Store Shoemaker Ferdinand Luthin 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Liquor Store Merchant McGrath & Bottom 1895 Choice Wines, Liquors and Cigars — Thomas A. McGrath, william A. Bottom Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. Elizabeth Mead 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Drug Store Merchant George N. Middleton 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant J. A. Middleton & Son 1895 John A. and James F. Middleton Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Lilburn Miller 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Millinery Milliner Mrs. Mary O. Moore 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville General Store Huckster William S. Morgan 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Misses S. J. and K. J. Morris 1895 S. Janie and Kate J. Morris Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Miss Mollie O’Brien 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Shoe Store Shoemaker Patrick O’Connor 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Morris Oestricher 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Tailor Daniel O’Sullivan 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant Tailor Michael O’Sullivan 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Drug Store Druggist J. M. Owen & Son 1895 William M. Owen, Lemuel G. Smith, Mrs. Mary G. Moore, Miss Emmas M. Owen Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Benjamin Payne 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville General Store Merchant Pemberton & Campbell 1895 John H. Pemberton, Robert A. Campbell Hawes
Shelbyville General Store Merchant Perry & Sleadd 1895 Millard F. Perry, Edgar Sleadd Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant Tailor William H. Priestley 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Misses A. and M. G. Pulliam 1895 America and Mary C. Pulliam — Fitting Guaranteed by Correct Measurements Hawes
Shelbyville General Store Merchant J. J. Ramey & Bro 1895 Jacob J. and Thomas J. Ramey Hawes
Shelbyville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. N. A. Rose & Daughter 1895 Nancy A. and Daisy Rose Hawes
Shelbyville Clothing Store Merchant A. Rothchild & Son 1895 Clothing, shoes, etc., — Abraham and Edwin Rothchild Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant Leopold Samuel 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant Charles Schradski 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Undertaker Funeral Director Shannon & Reid 1895 and Furniture Dealers — John S. Shannon, Shannon Reid Hawes
Shelbyville Lumber Store Dealer David N. Sharp 1895 Lumber, Sash, Doors & Blinds Hawes
Shelbyville Farm Implements Merchant Joseph Shipman 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Poultry Supplier Wesley Shipman 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Confectionery Merchant Shipman & Stone 1895 Squire Shipman, thomas E. Stone Hawes
Shelbyville Poultry Supplier L. G. Smith & Co 1895 L. Grant Smith, William H. Owen Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer J. Henry Sparks 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer John W. Staples 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Richard Steele 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Dry Goods Store Merchant Henry Stern 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Mrs. Catherine Sullivan 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Louis Talbert 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Grocery Grocer Taylor & Harbison 1895 Dr. John W. Taylor, Samuel B. Harbison Hawes
Shelbyville Coal Supply Dealer Frank M. Utterback 1895 Coal, lime, etc. Hawes
Shelbyville Transportation Transfer Samuel Vance 1895 Hawes
Shelbyville Stoves Merchant D. Wayne & Son 1895 David and Carl R. Wayne Hawes
Shelbyville Laundry Merchant Willson & Davis 1895 Edward R. Willson, William E. Davis Hawes
Shelbyville Southeast Corner of 7th and Main Streets Entertainment Hall Community Entertainment Layson Hall early 1900s William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville Grist Mill Flouring Mills Banner Roller Mills 19-Apr-04 George W. A. R. and John I. Logan, Harry M. Logan from 1908. Sold in 1909 to R. L. Prewitt of Perryville burned later the same year.
Shelbyville Shelbyville Road Savings & Loan Bank First Federal Savings & Loan 1905 Chartered in state of Illinois December 1905, name changed to Peoples Mutual Loan Association in January 1906; became First Federal Savings & Loan of Shelbyville in September 1936 with federal charter # 1277. website: History of First Federal Savings & Loan, Shelbyville
Shelbyville Shelbyville Road Savings & Loan Bank Great Financial Federal Savings & Loan 1915 Incorporated in Louisville in 1915, opened branch S&L in Shelbyville, acquired by First Star Bank and then U.S. Bank. The Shelbyville branch manager in 2002 was Ray Weeks. William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville Corner 10th and Washington Streets Laundry Laundry Logan’s Laundry 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville Kentucky Street between 10th and 11th Tobacco Warehouse Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Farmer’s Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville Kentucky Street between 10th and 11th Tobacco Warehouse Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Globe Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville 7th Street north of College and L&N Tracks just NW of the L&N Depot Coal Supply Merchant Hall & Chrowning Coal Yards 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville 7th Street north of College and L&N Tracks just NW of the L&N Depot Wholesale Oil Oil Suppy Standard Oil Company 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville 7th Street north of College and L&N Tracks just NW of the L&N Depot Tobacco Warehouse Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse American Tobacco Loose Leaf Warehouse 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville 7th and College Streets Lumber, Paint, & Roofing Merchant Hall & Crume 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville South Side of Main Street & Washington Streets U.S. Government Post Office U.S. Post Office 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville South 6th Street Dry Cleaners Dry Cleaners Rubens Dry Cleaning 1916 Louis Rubens Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville South 6th Street Appliance Store Merchant Howser’s Appliance Store 1916 Sanford Fire Maps
Shelbyville 5th Street Hardware Store Merchant Owen & Moore Hardware early 1920s Skating rink on 2nd floor William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville 529 Main Street between 5th & 6th Streets Savings & Loan Bank Shelby County Federal Savings & Loan, acquired by The Cumberland Savings & Loan c. 1982 and then by Fifth Third Bank of Western Kentucky c 1998. 1923 D. I  Cooper longtime chief operating officer; Manager under Fifth Third Bank in 2002 was Greg Jackobs and the office manager was Mary Maynard. William E. Matthews, New History
Shelbyville Tenth Street, later Tenth and High Street Grocery Grocer John Martin, Otis Ellis c. 1928 First African-American grocery serving Martinville area of Shelbyville. Alice Edwards and her sister Helen Wheatly and son Otis Ellis who also operated an ice truck. Popular in 1940s had a radio where community gathered to listen to Joe Louis’ fights. Stella K. Lee, New History
Shelbyville North Side of Main in 500 block Chain Grocery Grocer Kroger’s Early 1950s moved to East Main Street between 2nd and 3rd Streets, now St. James Episcopal Church fellowship hall William E. Matthews, New History
Simpsonville Tavern and Inn Tavern Fleming P. Rogers 1792 Old Stone Inn, sold to Isaac Greathouse in 1827, to Philip Johnstone in 1833, to Lindsey W. George and son Capt. Richard George in 1835. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Simpsonville Tavern and Inn Tavern Daniel Johnson and Geroge W. Johnstone 1838 Applied in 1838 and 1843. George Ann Carpenter, New History
Simpsonville Steam Grist Mill Saw and Grist Mill T. B. Caldwell 1852 Advertisement Charles d. Hockensmith, New History
Simpsonville Steam Grist Mill Saw and Grist Mill R. T. Marshall 1860 Settler from Maryland 1860 Manufacturing Census
Simpsonville Steam Grist Mill Saw and Grist Mill L. Beatty 1870 1870 Manufacturing Census
Simpsonville Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills J.W. Horner 1879 1880 Manufacturing Census
Simpsonville Water Grist Mill Flouring Mills William Hunt 1879 1880 Manufacturing Census
Simpsonville Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills J. Rogers 1879 1880 Manufacturing Census
Simpsonville Steam Saw Mill Saw Mills John and Charles McDowell 1880 Also Everly Webb, Bohannon & Copper,
Simpsonville General Store Merchant W. B. Montgall 1882 Dealer in Confectioneries, Notions, Staple and Fancy Groceries. Prices reasonable. Give me a call. 1882 Atlas
Simpsonville Dressmaker Dressmaker Mrs. Sallie Zilhart 1895 Hawes
Simpsonville on the L&N RR 8 mi W of Shelbyville 300 General Store Merchant T. M. Burge 1895 Hawes
Simpsonville Drug Store Merchant T. M. Elston 1895 Drugs and Groceries Hawes
Simpsonville Railroad & Express Agent J. A. Hall 1895 Hawes
Simpsonville Coal Supply Dealer Lyons 1895 Hawes
Simpsonville General Store Merchant T. M. Lyons 1895 Hawes
Simpsonville Todd’s Point Rd until 1960 when moved to U.S. 60 and Todd’s Point Road. Bank of Simpsonville, merged with Citizens Bank in 1970 forming Citizens Union Bank. Acquired Farmers & Traders Bank in 1986. Bank Presidents: T. M. Lyons, Leonidas Webb, Middleton Phillips. 1902 Directors: Roy C. Smith, Claud Buckley, L. H. Cooms, T. M. Lyons, C.R. Crosby, S. H. McMakin, Miller Wilhoite. During Civil War guerillas badly damaged building; robbery in 1932 made off with $2,945. William E. Matthews, New History
Simpsonville State Pike General Store Merchant Robert A. McDowell 1908 Groceries, hardware, feed, seed, bottled gas, and post office. Original building burned in 1928, rebuilt the same year on the same site. Herbert S. McDowell joined his father. R. A. died in 1957. Masie Walters McDowell joined her husband until they sold it to Chester and Frances Bemiss who retired in 1985. Now a restaurant. 1920 Census; Bob McDowell, New History
Simpsonville State Pike Grocery Clerk William L. Green 1920 Census
Simpsonville State Pike Dressmaker Dressmaker Viola B. Hatter 1920 Census
Simpsonville State Pike Teamster Driver Vernell Elzy 1920 Black Census
Simpsonville State Pike General Store Merchant Wade C. Lyon 1920 Census
Simpsonville Main Street Drug Store Druggist M. H. Webb 1920 Census
Simpsonville Main Street Railroad & Express Agent Francis L. Webb 1920 brother of M.H. Webb Census
Simpsonville Main Street General Store Salesman James J. Morlan 1920 Census
Simpsonville Main Street Dressmaker Dressmaker Martha A. Morlan 1920 Census
Simpsonville Main Street Hauling Truck Driver Gordon C. Mullins 1920 Census
Simpsonville Main Street Hauling Truck Driver James T. J. McMurry 1920 Census
Simpsonville State Pike Clothing Store Dressmaker Fannie Elston 1920 Census
Simpsonville State Pike Hauling Teamster Henry C. Jones 1920 Census
Simpsonville State Pike Music Store Salesman Cola Smith 1920 Census
Simpsonville Antioch Pike General Merchandise Salesman Susie Herrick 1920 Herrick Store built across from Simpsonville Christian Church burned in 1930s. W. A. Herrick rebuilt where Abbott Realty Co building is now (2002). Census; Ermin McKay Herrick, New History
Simpsonville Simpsonville-Finchville Road General Merchandise Merchant Roger D. Sleadd 1920 Census
Simpsonville Simpsonville-Finchville Road General Merchandise Merchant Eliavander Roberts 1920 Census
Simpsonville Todd’s Point Rd General Merchandise Merchant Walton and Edith Buckman 1933 Purchased wholesale from Louisville. Mike Morgan long time employee. Morgan and Buck Buckman served in WWII while Edith kept the store going until moved to Utah where husband stationed. Store reopened in 1945. Buckman was postmaster at Simpsonville from 1953-1961. Finally the Post Office took over the entire store. Sarah Ann Buckman Carpenter in New History
Southville Flour, Feed, Lumber Merchant J. M. Carriss 1882 Proprietor of Flour and Feed Mill, hews all kinds of Lumber. Will grind corn at all time to accommodate his customers. Mill at Southville. 1882 Atlas
Southville 8 mi from Shelbyville General Store Merchant Burnett & McGaughey 1895 Hawes
Southville General Store Merchant J. W. Snider 1895 Hawes
Southville Taylorsville Road General Store Merchant James T. Ratcliff 1920 Census
Southville Taylorsville Road General Store Truck Driver Royce T. Ratcliff 1920 Census
Southville Taylorsville Road General Store Clerk Roy D. Ratcliff 1920 Census
Todd’s Point Steam Grist Mill Flouring Mills J. S. Beatty 1879 1880 Manufacturing Census
Todd’s Point Drug Store Merchant M. H. Webb & Co 1895 Drugs and Groceries Hawes
Todd’s Point General Store Merchant M. P. Cinnamon 1882 and Post Office 1882 Atlas
Todd’s Point 11 mi NW Shelbyville, 6 N of Simpsonville 35 General Store Merchant J. H. Waugh 1895 Hawes
Veechdale General Store Merchant J. R. Cooper 1920 Census
Veechdale on So Ry 8 mi from Shelbyville 25 General Store Merchant Walter Hughes 1895 Hawes
Waddy Railroad & Express Agent C. L. Watson 1895 Hawes
Waddy on L&N RR 10 mi from Shelbyville 250 Railroad & Express Agent C. P. Clark 1895 Hawes
Waddy Lime & Cement Dealer C. E. Gibbs 1895 Hawes
Waddy General Store Merchant J. M. Hammonds 1895 Hawes
Waddy Millinery Milliner Mrs. Nannie Jones 1895 Hawes
Waddy Drug Store Merchant Morgan & McClain 1895 Drugs and Groceries Hawes
Waddy Grocery Grocer A. J. Rodgers 1895 Hawes
Waddy Shoe Store Shoemaker J. Sears 1895 Hawes
Waddy Meat Market Butcher Shouse & Gowens 1895 Hawes
Waddy Coal Supply Dealer T. M. Waddy 1895 Hawes
Waddy Deposit Bank Bank Bank of Waddy, then in 09Aug1909 became The Citizens Bank of Waddy 1899 Presidents: E. W. McCormack, E..J. Cline; directors – E. B. Beard, E. W. McCormack, Estill J. Cline, G. T. Mahuron, Charles A. McCormack,k W. H. Tipton, H. S. Samples, T. J. Doss, J. J. Paxton. William E. Matthews, New History
Waddy Waddy-Peytona Pk General Store Merchant Gavin Miles 1920 Census
Waddy Hempridge-Waddy Pk General Store Salesman Charlie E. Green 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike General Store Merchant Thomas J. Snider 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike General Store Merchant Eugene Williams 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike General Store Merchant James E. Tinsley 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike General Store Merchant John E. Cain 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike General Store Saleslady Amanda E. Snider 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike Grocery Merchant John T. Kent 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike Grocery Saleslady Helen Cline 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Main Pike Grocery Merchant Albert T. Saunders 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy College St Wholesale Grocery Traveling Salesman Artie S. Hedden 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy College St Dry Goods Store Saleslady Lula J. Hedden 1920 Census
Waddy Waddy Harrisonville Pk Dressmaker Dressmaker Edith B. Miller 1920 Census
Waddy Ditto Pike Dressmaker Dressmaker Mary C. Martin 1920 Census
Waddy Stringtown Branch Dressmaker Dressmaker Margarette E. Hall 1920 Census
Waddy Bardstown Road Dressmaker Dressmaker Fannie Callie 1920 Census
Waddy Bardstown Road Dressmaker Dressmaker Hallie A. Coulter 1920 Census

Adam Crosswhite, Slave Escape with Entire Family

 This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

 

Crosswhite, Adam (b. October 17, 1799, Bourbon Co., Ky.; d. January 23, 1878, Marshall, Mich.). Adam Crosswhite was a fair-skinned mulatto slave from Bourbon Co. His father was a white slave owner named Powers, who was a half-brother of Miss Ann Crosswhite. Ownership shifted to Miss Crosswhite prior to her marriage to Ned Stone. In turn, Stone sold Adam Crosswhite for $200, and in 1819 Adam was traded to Francis Giltner, a planter in Bourbon Co. There, Adam married Sarah in a slave ceremony and raised four children. Before 1830, Francis Giltner moved the entire family and his slaves to Hunters Bottom in Carroll Co., Ky. along the Ohio River.

In August 1843, Adam learned that Francis Giltner planned to sell part of his family. Crosswhite sought help from the Underground Railroad organization in Madison, Ind. As runaway slaves, and after having two narrow escapes using the newly organized safe routes through Ind., the Crosswhites—Adam, Sarah, Benjamin, Johnson, and two girls. Another child was born in Michigan. The Crosswhites managed to escape to Marshall, a city in south central Mich. There, Adam maintained a low profile. He worked, built a cabin, and became accepted in the village.

In response to the increased number of runaway slaves through the 1840s, slave owners in the north central river counties and the Bluegrass of Ky. sought to recover their financial investments. In 1846, a coalition of slave owners met in Covington, Ky., and hired a spy to ferret out runaway slaves in southern Mich. In late fall 1846, this spy, who called himself Carpenter, arrived in Marshall and in Cass Co. Masquerading as an abolitionist from Worcester, Mass., he visited the homes of free people of color. The information he gathered led to two major raids by Kentuckians, the earliest at Marshall in Calhoun Co., and the second in Cass Co.

In December 1846, acting on sources gathered by the spy, a young attorney in Lexington, Ky., Francis Troutman, grandson of a former owner and nephew of Francis Giltner, came to Calhoun Co., Mich., posing as a schoolteacher seeking a place to settle. He hired local Deputy Sheriff Harvey Dixon to pose as a census taker to scout the Crosswhite family. On January 20, 1847, Troutman reappeared at Marshall with three other Kentuckians—William Franklin Ford, David Giltner, and James S. Lee—- and, accompanied by Deputy Sheriff Dixon, went to the Crosswhite cabin. There they attempted to capture Adam, but he and his son Johnson fled through a cornfield; Crosswhite accompanied Deputy Sheriff Dixon to secure counsel, and Troutman stayed in the Crosswhite cabin with drawn pistol as several neighbors attempted to enter the house, one of whom, a Mr. Hackett, was assaulted by Troutman.

When Dixon returned, he charged Troutman with assault and battery on Hackett and with trespassing and housebreaking. Troutman paid $100 in fines the next day in the local court before Judge Randall Hobart. Meanwhile, the townspeople hid the Crosswhite family in the attic of George Ingersoll’s mill. Isaac Jacobs, the hostler at the Marshall House, hired a team and covered wagon and,on the night of January 27, Ingersoll and Asa B. Cook drove the Crosswhite family to Jackson where they boarded a train to Detroit. George De Baptiste, the former Underground Railroad leader at Madison, Ind., met the Crosswhites in Detroit and took them into Canada.

The Kentuckians were furious, and several slave owner meetings were held. Citizens of Trimble and Carroll counties, led by Moses Hoagland of Hunters Bottom, met at Kings Tavern on February 10 and drew up three resolutions demanding that the Ky. legislature call upon its U.S. senators and congressmen to pass federal legislation giving slave owners redress and imprisoning and fining those who enticed, harbored, or aided runaway slaves.

By June 1847, Mich. newspapers along the southern tier were equally outraged that Ky. posses were seizing fugitives in a free state whose citizens detested slavery. In August 1847, a large Ky. raid led by Boone Co. (Ky.) slave owners George W. Brazier and Benjamin Stevens was repulsed from Cass Co. after attempting to recapture several former slaves.

The legislative wheels were set in motion. Joseph Underwood’s report and resolutions from the Ky. legislature were sent to the U.S. Senate on December 20, 1847 and, in May 1848, Senator Andrew P. Butler of S.C. printed his report favoring strong federal sanctions against those aiding runaway slaves; 10,000 copies were distributed. Momentum built for passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act that made it mandatory for U.S.  marshals to seize runaway slaves, for representatives of the slave owner to identify the runaways, and for severe fines to be levied on all those aiding and harboring fugitive slaves. Henry Clay, a personal friend of Francis Giltner, proposed a clause mandating restitution of property to southerners reclaiming runaway slaves.

Attorney Francis Troutman returned to Mich. in May 1848 to gather evidence and press charges against those who aided the Crosswhite family. On June 1, 1848, in Detroit, Justice McLane of the federal bench heard Giltner vs. Gorham et al. McLane charged the jury with ignoring their attitude toward slavery and deciding the case based only on the plaintiffs right to the services of the fugitives, and therefore, the right to obtain financial redress. The first trial jury hung and was discharged on June 12. A second trial was held and the jury awarded Giltner $1,926 in damages and heavy court costs, for a total of about $4,500. Zachariah Chandler, a leading antislavery Whig in Detroit, paid the greater part of the fine. Juryman Philo Dibble, a resident of Marshall, was publicly chastised from the pulpit by his Presbyterian minister for his participation in the verdict.

Northern reaction to passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act was swift. By 1854, Ind. Mich., and Ohio had formed significant Republican parties that were obtaining antislavery majorities in their state legislative bodies, sending anti-slave congressmen and senators to Washington, and, by 1860, giving Abraham Lincoln the presidential candidacy.

The Crosswhite family returned to Marshall, Mich., after the Civil War; in 1878, Adam Crosswhite died and was buried in the Oakridge Cemetery in that city. In 1923, Michigan erected a bronze marker set in a stone boulder near the old Crosswhite cabin. The marker commemorates the runaway slave from Carroll Co., Ky., and the role of the people of Marshall in repulsing the Ky. posse.

Battle Creek Enquirer, July 14, 1907, January 28, 1929, July 3, 1930, April 1960.

Battle Creek, Michigan, Journal, 1927.

Battle Creek, Michigan, Tribune, January 20, 1847.

Crosswhite File, Calhoun Co., Mich., Public Library.

The Enquirer and Evening News of Battle Creek, Michigan, February 18, 1923, February 11, 1945, February 17, 1974.

Giltner vs. Gorham et al; Case No. 5,453, Circuit Court D, Michigan [114 McLean 402: 6 West Law J, 491].

Fuller, George N. ed. Michigan: A Centennial History of the State and Its People. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co, 1939.

Gara, Larry. The Liberty Line, University of Kentucky Press. 1961.

Gardner, History of Calhoun County, Michigan, 1913.

History of Calhoun County, Michigan, L. H. Everts & Co., Philadelphia, 1877.

Journal of the (Ky.) House of Representatives, (February 13, 1847): 338–41.

Michigan History, 53, no. 2 (1969): 131–43.

20th Congress, First Session [Senate] Ref. Com. No. 143.

The Weekly Commonwealth, Frankfort, Ky., February 23, 1847.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

 

Richard Daly, Underground Railroad Conductor, Escape to Canada

 This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

 

Richard Daly line drawing from Detroit Sunday News-Tribune Jul 22, 1894Daly, Richard (date and place of birth unknown), The birthplace and birth date of Richard Daly, like those of many Ky. slaves, are unknown, but he was still alive in 1894 in Windsor, Canada, when interviewed by a reporter for a Detroit, Mich., newspaper. Richard Daly’s four children were born between 1840 and 1850 in Hunter’s Bottom, in Carroll Co., Ky. His oldest girl, Mary, was listed as being age seventeen in the 1860 Detroit census.

In the 1850s, Richard, his brother, Joe Daly, and Tom Owen were slaves owned by Samuel Fearn Sr. at Hunter’s Bottom, Ky. The Fearn family came to Ky. from Buckingham Co., Va. In 1803, Samuel Fearn (1766–1828) and his oldest son George (1796–1869) came to Hunter’s Bottom, a ten-mile stretch of Ohio River bottomland between Canip and Locust creeks. The Fearns had first moved to Bourbon Co. in Ky., but encountering some kind of land interference issues there, proceeded north.

Samuel Fearn, the family’s fourth child, was born at Hunter’s Bottom in 1806 and married Elizabeth Owen in 1826. George and Samuel Fearn together owned about 1,000 acres along the banks of the Ohio River, straddling the Carroll and Trimble county line, but Samuel Fearn’s main income came from his gristmill and packet steamship businesses in Milton, on the Ky. side of the Ohio River opposite Madison, Ind. He also purchased timberland in Jackson Co., Ind., on the White River. George Fearn speculated in land along the wharf area in Madison and along the Ind. shoreline on the east side of Madison. The two Fearn brothers were quite wealthy.

Sam Fearn's home c. 1910 Hunters Bottom
Sam Fearn’s plantation house at Hunter’s Bottom, Kentucky

Samuel Fearn had three slaves; his brother George, a bachelor, owned four or five slaves. The Fearn family history states that George Fearn had become an ardent Methodist and emancipated all of his slaves in his will. George was so pro-Union and so openly opposed to slavery that horses were stolen from his farm in a targeted attack by Confederate raiders during the Civil War.

In his 1894 interview, Richard Daly referred to Samuel and George Fearn as “kind,” and it appeared that Richard had many advantages over other slaves in the region. He lived in a brick house behind the main Samuel Fearn homestead and was permitted to take produce to market in Madison, in order to earn money to purchase his freedom. In fact, Samuel Fearn had set an extremely low purchase price, $100, for Richard’s freedom , with comparable prices for slaves of Richard’s age and ability rising well above $800-$900. Richard claimed that by 1856 he had already saved $100 “in his pocket.” Fearn, like many of the Hunter’s Bottom slave owners, allowed frequent conjugal visits by Richard to his wife Kitty, a house servant owned by Moses Hoagland who lived east of the Fearns along the Ohio River toward Carrollton, Ky. Richard and Kitty had four living children that by law and custom were owned by Moses Hoagland.

Eagle Hollow Vertical
Eagle Hollow on Indiana side of Ohio River

But the most unusual fact about Richard Daly was that he had worked actively in the Underground Railroad (UGRR) for some years. He stated that he had ferried thirty fugitive slaves across the Ohio River before 1856. He would meet the fugitive slaves two miles above Milton and row them across in his small boat. During the 1850s, this route through Eagle Hollow in Carroll Co., Ky., was one of the most active crossing points on the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Ky. Richard’s method of signaling his friend, a white leader of the UGRR (probably John Carr) was also highly unusual. Richard said that he would row into the middle of the Ohio River and shoot a revolver in the air. The UGRR agent would then shoot his revolver in response. By the time Richard arrived at the Ind. shore, his white friend would be ready and take charge of the runaways.

It was well known that Samuel Fearn enjoyed hunting and had several hunting dogs always running through the house and farm. But for a slave to have access to a revolver and ammunition is remarkable. Further, the sound of gunshots in the middle of the Ohio River at night carried to both shores. If the Indiana UGRR agent heard it, the Fearns would have heard it also. Therefore, it has been suggested locally that the Fearn brothers were tacitly, if not actively, approving Richard’s aiding of runaway slaves.

Richard said that he was happy in his circumstances and had no plans to escape, but then his wife Kitty unexpectedly died. Richard was concerned about his children and asked Mrs. Hoagland (Sarah Payne of Lexington, Ky.) to keep them in Hunter’s Bottom, and she agreed. However, a short time later, the Hoagland daughter married a doctor and moved to Louisville and asked for Mary, the oldest Daly girl, to go with her permanently. When Richard learned his family was to be separated, he went that same night to pick up all four children. They crossed the Ohio River and took the Madison UGRR route north through Ind. Richard said that they rode horses northward successively accompanied by two sets of UGRR agents, one from dark to midnight and another from midnight to dawn. The Daly family slept in various farmhouses until they reached Mich. There, they boarded the Michigan Central Railroad to Detroit, and then crossed over the ferry to Windsor, Canada.

In Canada, Richard worked feeding cattle for a man named Hiram Walker, an exporter of livestock to Great Britain from a farm located along the Detroit River. Daly said that he had crossed the Atlantic Ocean several times with these shipments. At some point, Richard married a second time. In 1894, three of the children who escaped with him were living in Detroit, and one child had died in Windsor.

Fearn Hill enhanced, hunters bottom
George Fearn’s Fearn Hill Plantation at Hunter’s Bottom Kentucky

Apparently Joe Daly and Tom Owen continued to live with Samuel Fearn at Hunter’s Bottom even after the Thirteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution freed all slaves. When George Fearn died in 1869 he left Fearn Hill, his antebellum home, to his nephew, George Fearn. The emancipation clause was still in George’s will, but it was moot since his slaves were already free by law.

Blassingame, John W. ed. Slave Testimony. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Coon, Diane Perrine, “Southeastern Indiana’s Underground Railroad Routes and Operations,” TM, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and “Chapman Harris and the St. Paul’s Baptist Church, Madison, Indiana,” for University of Louisville graduate program.

Emma McClaran Fearn family Bible in possession of Larry Douglas Smith of Louisville, Ky.

Smith, Larry Douglas, “The Fearns of Hunters Bottom, Kentucky,” TM at Kentucky Historical Society.

Interview with Richard Daly, 1894, Detroit Sunday News Tribune, Michigan State Library Newspaper Project.

Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 1864 Census.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

Miles Withers Conway, Pioneer Mason County, Kentucky

The following article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky

Conway, Miles Withers (b. 1752, Stafford Co, Va.; d. February 28, 1822, Mason Co., Ky.). Sometime before 1786, Miles Withers Conway and his brother, John (1757–1842), settled in Mason Co., Ky. Unlike most of the early surveyors in Ky., Miles Conway and fellow pioneer, Henry Lee, were familiar with the use of new surveyor’s instruments, such as quadrants and transits with the mathematical underpinnings of professional surveying.

Miles W. and John Conway were the sons of Captain Withers Conway and Dulcibella Bunbury of Stafford Co., Va. The Bunbury family was socially well connected but improvident. The Conway family was descended from Dennis Conway, an early settler (1665) of Va’s Great Wiccomico River, and his fifth son, Christopher Conway, who married Sarah Withers, one of the wealthiest women living in the American colonies.

Although Miles inherited 300 acres in northeastern Fauquier Co., Va., from his grandmother, Sarah Withers Conway, the family’s main fortune, as well as 1,350 acres of Stafford Co., Va., lands, were entailed to the Withers family’s male heir in England upon Sarah Withers Conway’s death. Powerful landed gentry in Va., such as Augustine Washington and Col. Henry Fitzhugh, wanted the Withers family’s land, but Sarah refused to vacate her plantation. Fitzhugh called her “that old hag,” but Sarah apparently outlived them all, including her own son, Capt. Withers Conway, because when she died at age ninety, she was still residing on her plantation’s lands.

Captain Withers Conway, Miles Conway’s father, served as captain in the Va. Militia during the French and Indian War and for his military service was entitled to land warrants in Ky. The DAR lists Miles Conway and his brother, John Conway as Revolutionary War soldiers from Spottsylvania, Va. Somehow, the Conway brothers became friendly with the sizeable Berry family clan in Frederick Co., Va. John Conway married Mary (Mollie) Berry. and Miles married Susannah, who was probably Mary Berry’s sister. The Conway brothers’ father-in-law was Joseph Berry, who was married to Mary Fairfax Berry, from the well-connected Fairfax family of Va.

In 1787, Miles Conway filed a survey and patent in his name, using a 1785 Fincastle Co., Va., treasury warrant from Joseph Berry for 637.5 acres along the Kentucky River in what was then Fayette Co., Ky. From the transaction sequence on these lands, it appears that this might have been a dowry or a wedding gift from Joseph Berry to his son-in-law Miles W. Conway. That land was not sold until after the Miles Withers Conway’s estate was settled in 1831, and by then, at least thirty acres from the original tract was located in Owen Co., Ky.

In 1786, Miles Conway purchased several in-lots and became a trustee of the town of Washington, Ky., in Mason Co. Joseph Berry owned two houses down the street. Miles soon began work as a surveyor.  Miles’s brother, John Conway, meantime, had purchased land along the Mill Creek southeast of the town of Washington with two of the six Berry families then residing in Mason Co.

Miles Conway fit easily into the class of people who became magistrates in Mason Co. He served on the first court as a gentleman justice, and, in August 1786, became district commissioner of the western side of Mason Co. Conway platted the town of Mayslick, Ky. and was called upon by the Va. courts to resurvey disputed earlier land claims. Miles was elected sheriff of Mason Co. in 1790. He had the dubious distinction of serving a warrant issued in Bourbon Co., Ky., for breach of contract and non-payment of debt on Simon Kenton, the famed pioneer and Indian fighter who was, at the time, a Major in the local militia. Using uncommon judicial restraint, Miles, as the arresting sheriff, set a parole perimeter wherein Kenton was to stay. The ten-mile diameter of the parole perimeter included the taverns located in Limestone, Ky., (Maysville), Kenton’s house, and Kenton’s favorite hunting and fishing spots. Upon such good and popular judgment, Miles was re-elected sheriff in 1792 and as a delegate from Mason Co. to the state constitutional convention at Danville, Ky., in the same year. At Danville, this slaveholder from a slaveholding Va. family did a surprising thing. He voted with the seven preachers present to strike Article IX of the proposed constitution. Although not going so far as to institutionalize slavery in Ky., Article IX permitted slaves to be brought into the state with their masters, and it provided for local governments to regulate slaves within their jurisdictions. The article passed over the raised objections, and Miles, in the end, signed the first Ky. Constitution. The 1795 Mason Co. tax list showed Miles owning six slaves, seven horses, and twenty cattle.

In December 1802, Miles W. Conway and Henry Lee were appointed associate judges to the circuit court in Ky. Both men were well acquainted with the land interference and criminal mischief cases that dominated early Ky. court dockets; thus they were uniquely qualified to assess many overlapping claims brought into their respective courts.

Sometime between 1802 and 1805, Miles Withers Conway wrote a Treatise on Practical Surveying based on Robert Gibson’s Treatise on Surveying, a two-volume text that used English land claims in Northern Ireland for its worked examples; the second volume was entirely given over to log tables, sine, cosine, and tangent tables. Gibson’s first editions were printed in London, England. Joseph and James Cruckshank of Philadelphia, Pa., printed the fourth edition in 1785. Miles W. Conway used Gibson’s seventh edition of 1794, also printed in Philadelphia, as the guidebook for his own treatise.

In May 1805, Miles Conway took a simplified version of his earlier treatise to Thomas Tunstall, Clerk of the U.S. District Court, where Conway cited his publication as being “an act for the encouraging of learning by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books to the authors and proprietors or such copies during the time therein mentioned.” By this action, Conway had applied a very early copyright protection for his surveying book.

Daniel Bradford, son of John Bradford, the pioneering editor of Ky.’s first newspaper, the Kentucky Gazette, published Conway’s book in 1807 at Lexington, Ky. Its full title was: Geodosia, or a Treatise of Practical Surveying, wherein Several Things that Are Useful and Necessary in that Art are Considered and Explained, particularly several Very Consise Methods for Determining the Areas of Surveys by Calculations in Different Forms, and several Different Tables Adapted for that Purpose, Made for the Use of the Western Surveyors in Particular, or May be Useful to Any Other. Recognizing that few frontiersmen in America had a sufficient knowledge of math or the proper surveying instruments to apply Gibson or John Love’s more exacting scientific surveying principles directly, Conway emphasized, in his treatise, a method called Latitude and Departures. Applicable chiefly to plane surfaces, this method required a compass reading of latitude and then the establishing of a grid of measurements of deviations from that latitude, by use of a compass ring and simple calculations.

Obviously written to satisfy basic surveying in wilderness areas, Conway’s book had only sixty-four pages and is 4¾ inches by 7⅞ inches, easily portable in a saddlebag, or in the inside pocket of a greatcoat or hunting jacket. All examples given in the book were very practical and taken directly from Miles Conway’s experiences surveying in Ky.

Conway died in 1822 and is buried in Mason County.

Conway, Miles W. Geodosia, or a Treatise of Practical Surveying. Lexington, Ky.: Daniel Bradford, 1807.

Journal of the First Constitutional Convention of Kentucky, Held in Danville, Kentucky, April 2 to 19, 1792, Lexington, Ky.: State Bar Association, 1942.

The Kentucky Gazette. January 2, 1790, May 17, 1792, May 25, 1793, June 4, 1796, November 5, 1796, May 17, 1796, August 15, 1798, September 15, 1800, December 28, 1802, March 22, 1808.

Lane, Ben, Richmond, KY, personal collection—“A Few Facts and Events Surrounding the Town of Washington in 1786,” George H. S. King to the Rev. Melvin Lee Steadman, January 20, 1962, and Mrs. Stanley Reed to George H. S. King January 15, 1962, original in Va. State Archives, “Stations and Settlements and Preemptions in and Around Washington.”

“Surveyor’s Measurers,” TM, from Kentucky Historical Society vertical files.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

 

 

 

Freedmen Bureau Schools

This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

Freedmen’s Bureau Schools. Before the Civil War, free people of color residing in Ky. could with great difficulty obtain basic reading and writing skills through subscription schools sponsored by their churches or by leaving Ky. to attend schools in states north of the Ohio River. In some urban areas of Ky. church pastors taught in the subscription schools; however, in the state’s rural areas such educational opportunities rarely existed.

Slaves had even more difficulty learning how to read and write. Very few slave owners in Ky. permitted their slaves to learn to read the Bible, as this practice was frowned upon both by social custom and by various local ordinances. In Bracken Co. in Ky., during the mid-1830s, a slave owner named Jack Tabb taught his slaves to read and “figger” because this suited Tabb’s interests. However, Tabb’s actions were quite unusual. Most slave owners feared that slaves, if taught to write, would forge “permission to move” slips and escape to the North. Such fears were particularly acute for those holding slaves in the river counties of Northern Kentucky. Eventually, one of Tabb’s slaves, Arnold Gragston, did just that, leaving Ky. with his entire family for Canada.

At the end of the Civil War, the nation faced the fact that there were nearly four million illiterate freedmen, with almost 250,000 of these living in Ky. In the massive confusion following the war’s end, federal and state governments focused on reestablishing political and economic stability rather educating the free blacks and former slaves who lacked a basic education. Rebuilding the railroads and transportations systems were instead among the war-scarred nation’s first priorities. The Radical Republicans in the U.S. Congress sought legislation that would redistribute land from Confederate officials and military leaders to former slaves and provide welfare assistance and jobs for freedmen. Over strong objections and a veto by President Andrew Johnson (1865–1869), Congress enacted legislation establishing the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in mid-1865 (Freedmen’s Bureau). Part of its mission was to create a system of education for former slaves.

Initially, Ky. was not covered under this legislation. However, the Ky. General Assembly’s failure to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, to eliminate the slave codes, and to provide for the education of former slaves caught the attention of Major Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, the Freedmen’s Bureau administrator in Tenn. Fisk’s January 1866 report to Washington, D.C., detailing Kentucky’s intransigence, led to the establishment of a Freedmen’s Bureau in Ky., an action seen by Ky. lawmakers as treating their state as conquered territory.

Northern abolitionists, working chiefly through the American Missionary Association (AMA) and Western Freedmen Aid Commission (WFAC), poured money as well as preachers and teachers into the South from 1865–1867. In Ky., these benevolent societies established schools at Covington and then eventually across the rest of the state.

Appointed as Chaplain and Chief Superintendent of Freedmen’s Bureau Schools, Rev. T. K. Noble (working under Major Gen. Jeff C. Davis, the Freedmen’s Bureau’s Assistant Commissioner for Ky.), began the arduous task of supervising the education of 250,000 former slaves; Noble’s priority throughout his tenure as superintendent was to educate the 37,000 freed school-aged children in Ky. In December 1865, Ky. had only eighteen schools educating African Americans—nine subscription schools and nine schools funded through the AMA and WFAC.

The federal government funded the Freedmen’s Bureau’s staff salaries, some limited construction funds for schools, part of the teachers’ transportation costs, and a small portion of the teachers’ salaries at the Freedmen’s Bureau schools. The bulk of funding for these schools in Ky. was supposed to come from taxes paid by freedmen. Since few African Americans owned property in 1866, the taxes collected were miniscule. For several years, the Ky. General Assembly insisted that freedmen paupers should receive the bulk of taxes paid by freedmen, leaving very little money for the schools operated by the Freedmen’s Bureau. As a result, the Freedmen’s Bureau schools were financed only partly by a shoestring budget from the federal government. Religious and abolitionist sources financed some Freedmen’s Bureau schools, many of the teacher salaries, and even some teacher training. Tuition fees from freedmen themselves defrayed costs of buildings and some of the teachers’ salaries. Freedmen, especially in the rural areas, had little access to cash, and therefore most contributions were in kind such as donating labor in constructing the schools and by using their church buildings as schools. Had it not been for the financial resources from AMA, WFAC, and the Baptist, Episcopal, and Methodist missionary associations, the educational effort at the Freeman’s Bureau schools would have failed quickly.

Reverend Noble established three regional districts in Ky.—Louisville, Lexington, and Paducah—and began appointing district superintendents whose task it was to educate black citizens. The Freedman Bureau’s first statistical report on progress at these schools, by Jesse Duns, was submitted to Washington, D.C. in June 1866; only slight gains had been realized in the first six months, and these were mainly in the urban areas. There were eighteen schools in Louisville and Lexington and seven in the rest of the state, serving 80 adults and 2,800 children. Most of these schools operated only three months each year. Moreover, it was reported that operational budgets at these schools were extremely small.

The task in Ky. was so monumental that Noble decided to allow the abolitionists to concentrate on developing freedmen schools in the state while Noble, in turn, would focus on developing community-based initiatives and support for educating freedmen. Accordingly, Noble encouraged the AMA, a longtime supporter of Berea College, the WFAC, an early supporter of efforts in Covington, and the Baptist, Episcopal, and Methodist missionary societies to continue working on developing the freedmen schools statewide. By design, the Freedmen’s Bureau thereafter focused its limited resources on sharing some expenses of freedmen churches in order to open their buildings for day and night subscription schools, paying for teacher transportation and funding school buildings where necessary.

One critical shortage–the lack of qualified teachers—was solved initially by using abolitionist agencies to recruit young black and white teachers from the North, many from Oberlin College at Yellow Springs in Ohio, and from New England and N.Y. Kentuckians disliked the idea of former slaves learning to read and write and despised these abolitionist teachers from the North. Noble’s monthly reports detail examples of these teachers being harassed and terrorized by local citizens. Noble placed a high priority on establishing African-American teacher training and certification at two locations, and with the aid of AMA and WFAC, the new Ely Normal School in Louisville was launched with forty teacher certification candidates by December 1868; the same resources funded Berea College in Berea, Ky., that had space for 150 students, half of them white.

Colored School Idlewild Boone Co KY Scheben Library
Colored School Idlewild Boone Co KY Scheben Library Similar to early Freedmen’s Bureau schools.

The second critical shortage was the lack of buildings that could be used as schools for the freedmen’s children. Most of the earliest schools were housed in African-American churches or in buildings described as shacks. Noble lobbied hard to use the meager Freedmen’s Bureau funds to build new school buildings. Among the earliest schoolhouses built in Northern Kentucky were: a 30 by 60 foot wooden structure at Washington, Ky., in Mason Co., completed in April 1867; and an 18 by 30 foot schoolhouse costing $200 at Warsaw, Ky., in Gallatin Co., completed in mid-1868.

In the schoolhouse construction program, either the Freedmen’s Bureau or the local freedmen trustees acquired titles to the land. Under contract with local freedmen trustees, the Freedmen’s Bureau supplied the lumber, nails, and other materials while local freemen provided free labor. The Freedmen’s Bureau schools were simple structures, no more than rectangular boxes, but at a time when there were few rural common schools for whites, these schoolhouses were treasured by freedmen and despised by many whites. As such, they were often the target of reprisals by night riders, some of whom belonged to the Ku Klux Klan.

In October 1868, reporting on fall classes, the Freedmen’s Bureau maintained 135 day schools, 1 night school, 6 white teachers, and 144 black teachers, with 6,022 students enrolled. However, there were “outrages:” such as the church schoolhouse operated by the Freedmen’s Bureau in Germantown, Ky., Mason Co., which had been burned down by arsonists. By 1869, Ben Runkle, Noble’s replacement as superintendent in Ky., reported substantial gains, with a total of 248 schools operating. Thirteen schools, newly constructed with Freedmen’s Bureau funds, were completed.

In Northern Kentucky, the Freedmen’s Bureau activity was uneven. Augusta, Covington, Maysville, and Washington were quick to embrace the education of freedmen. But the river counties of Boone and Carroll, and inland in the heavily Confederate strongholds of Grant and Owen Cos. there was little interest and often violent hostility. In 1870 in Boone Co., for example, there was only one freedmen school operating at Caladonia, now Petersburg, Ky.

In some Ky. counties, great losses of the slave population immediately prior to and during the Civil War combined with antipathy to create a general indifference toward educating former slaves. Across the Ohio River at Madison, Ind., the Freemen’s Bureau funded a school in fall 1868 so that freedmen’s children from Carroll and Trimble Cos. in Ky. could be educated. Hundreds of former slaves from these and other Ky. counties fled into Ind. and Ohio. The small A.M.E. church school at Hanover, Ind., funded in part by the Freedmen’s Bureau, taught seventy-five students while another seventy per year were being taught in Madison’s black churches. At the same time, the large influx of former slaves out of Northern Kentucky into Cincinnati, Ohio, was being prompted as much by the promise of access to education as to the promise of wage jobs. Boone and Kenton Cos. in Northern Kentucky experienced 60% reductions in their African-American populations between 1850 and 1870.

Ky.’s state funding of black schooling remained a chronic problem throughout the five years, 1865–1869, that the Freedmen’s Bureau schools were operating in the state. And later during the 1870s, once Confederates supporters had taken control of the Ky. political structure, funding for the freedmen’s schools essentially ceased. Ultimately, Northern abolitionists had no sustaining interest in further occupying the South. In January 1869, the Freedmen’s Bureau was ordered closed and by April 1869 its schools in Ky. were left, forsaken and still unfunded.

Many of the black churches continued educating former slaves in subscription programs in spite of the lack of cash and blatant hostility toward their activities among whites. Clearly, the Freemen’s Bureau had made a start in the task of educating former slaves. More than 10,750 black children had received at least three months of schooling, about a third of what was needed. Additionally, more than one hundred buildings usable as schools had been designated for freedmen; and a small, but eager, cadre of newly trained black teachers had graduated from Berea College and the Ely Normal School in Louisville.

One of the most important steps that the Freedmen’s Bureau accomplished was their aid, working with AMA and WFAC, in forming a statewide convention of black educators. The first meeting in 1867 in Lexington petitioned the Ky. General Assembly for support for black schools; the second meeting in Louisville was a three-day conference that featured distinguished national and state speakers. Attended by Covington African-American leaders Jacob Price and Isaac Black, the conference’s resolutions petitioned the Ky. General Assembly to add the African-American population to the common school system. The resolutions denoted that the Freedmen’s Bureau was leaving the state, and therefore it was even more critical for the state to take responsibility.

Cities such as Covington and Newport, Ky., that had charters from the state legislature, were able to take advantage of their respective mayor’s and city council’s authority to fund their black schools through taxes and then sinking funds, much drawn from the white school system. However, it was 1874 before the state legislature acted to include African-American children in the common schools system.

In April 1875, the first of the checks funding segregated black common schools in Ky. were sent from state government in Frankfort to Campbell, Carroll, Kenton, and Pendleton counties. . The Freedmen’s Bureau had established 18 schools in Northern Kentucky with space for 443 students. By 1900, under the common school program, there were 54 schools in Northern Kentucky dedicated to educating 3,959 black students, the descendants of former slaves.

Bentley, George R. The History of the Freedmen’s Bureau, New York: Octagon Books, 1970.

Cover Letters and Narrative Reports, Rev. T. K. Noble, Chaplain and Chief Superintendent Freedmen Schools, State of Kentucky to Rev. J. W. Alvord, General Superintendent, Washington, D. C., July 8, 1867, October 1, 1867, January 1, 1868, March 8, 1868, April 1, 1868, May 1, 1868, January 13, 1869.

Marrs, Elijah Preston. “Autobiography of Elijah P. Marrs,” from Documenting the American South at University of North Carolina. Ledger, Superintendent of Schools of Kentucky (Colored), 1875–1885, Kentucky State Archives.

Narrative Reports from Ben R. Runkle, Louisville, KY, to Brig. Gen. E. Whittlesey, Washington, D. C., July 20, 1869.

Reports to Superintendent of Public Instruction, January 3,1839—January 3, 1849, Kentucky State Archives.

Statistical Report, Freedmen’s Bureau–State of Kentucky, December 1868, February 1869.

Turley-Adams, Alicestyne. Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, Frankfort: Kentucky Heritage Council and African-American Heritage Commission, 1997. Webb, Ross A. “The Past is Never Dead, It’s Not Even Past,” Benjamin P. Runkle and the Freedmen’s Bureau in Kentucky, 1866–1870, in Donald G. Nieman, ed. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Black Freedom, II, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994.

Wilson, George D. A Century of Negro Education in Louisville, Kentucky. Louisville” University of Louisville, 1986, from original Works Progress Administration and Louisville Municipal College, ca. 1935.

Freedmen’s Schools in Northern Kentucky

July1867-February1869

 

County Town Date Sponsor Teacher* Note
Mason Wash-  ington July 1867 Freedmen’s Bureau Building 30×60 Wood
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Amanda Perkins
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Avene Casey
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Mary E.   Wilson
Mason Wash-  ington Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Elizabeth Wilkerson
Bracken Augusta Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau
  1. M. White
Pendle-  ton Brandy-  wine Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Mary  Southgate
Pendle-  ton Fal-  mouth Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Ellen Kinny
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau
  1. C. Wilmot
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Ellen N.   Leavitt
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Richard Singer
Bracken Augusta Dec 1868 Church & School Jeptha Griffin—c 13 male, 15 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Alex Howard Alex Howard—c 26 male, 16 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Mary Williams Mary Williams—c 12 male, 13 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Henry Graham Julia Warner—c 8 male, 9 female
Kenton Coving-      ton Dec 1868 Church
  1. E. Willis—c

Eliza Skillman—w

44 male, 45 female
Mason Mays-       ville Dec 1868 Church Amanda Perkins—cGreen Casey—cThird unintelligible 39 male, 47 female
Mason Wash-  ington Dec 1868 School Marcia    Dunlap—c 20 male, 21 female
Pendle- ton Fal- mouth Dec 1868 Church Ellen M. H. Southgate—c 10 male, 6 female
Gallatin Warsaw Jan 1869 Freedmen’s Bureau Building 18×30 $200
Bracken German- town Jan 1869 Freedmen’s Bureau Freedmen’s Church and School burned
Boone Cale-    donia Feb 1869 School Joshua    Kendall—c 18 male, 18 female
Bracken Augusta Feb 1869 Church Unreported 12 male, 15 female
Pendle-  ton Fal- mouth Feb 1869 Church Ellen M. Southgate 9 male, 4 female
Camp-   bell New-  port Feb 1869 Henry Graham School Mary    Warmus—w 12 male, 13 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Feb 1869 Closed
Kenton Coving-    ton Feb 1869 Church
  1. C. Wilmot—w

Eliza Skillman—c

56 male, 48 female
Kenton Coving-    ton Feb 1869 Church
  1. C. Wilmot—w (night)
17 male, 12 female
Kenton Union     Hall Feb 1869 School William A. Patterson—c 20 male, 15 female
Mason Mays-     ville Feb 1869 Church Amanda Perkins—cGreen       Carey—cMary Nelson—c 50 male, 52 female
Mason May- slick Feb 1869 School Emma Gardner—c 25 male, 27 female
Mason Wash- ington Feb 1869 Church Narcissa Dunlap—c 20 male, 20 female
Pendle-  ton Brandy-  wine Feb 1869 School Mary South- gate—c 6 male, 6 female

* Note c—colored, w—white

 

Diane Perrine Coon

 

Elijah Anderson, Underground Railroad Conductor

This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky

Anderson, Elijah (b. ca. 1808, Fluvanna Co., Va.; d. Frankfort, Ky., March 4, 1861). Dubbed the “General Superintendent” of the Underground Railroad (UGRR) by Rush R. Sloane, an abolitionist in northwest Ohio, Elijah Anderson became a major “conductor,” bringing hundreds of runaway slaves to freedom from Northern Kentucky counties.

Born a free person of color in Va., Elijah Anderson was forced from his native state by restrictive black laws passed after the 1831 Nat Turner Rebellion. Sometime before 1835, Elijah relocated to Cincinnati, Ohio. Trained as a blacksmith and skilled in making wrought iron undercarriages and decorative fences, Elijah found ready employment as a laborer fixing metal and steam fittings on Ohio River steamboats. . He forged strong friendships with other free blacks—George De Baptiste, Chapman Harris, and John Lott—as well as John Carter, a Lexington, Ky. native who had settled in Cincinnati among the large free black community. Carter fled to Canada during the 1830 riots and then returned when things calmed.

Both De Baptiste, a barber, and Carter, a grocer, worked as stewards, a high-ranking position for free blacks. According to Lott, these men were introduced to Ohio Underground Railroad (UGGR) leaders through Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, who, during the 1830s, was at Cincinnati’s Lane Seminary and also at his first pastorate, the Lawrenceburg (Ind.) Presbyterian Church. Between December 1837 and early 1840, all five of these free blacks relocated to Madison, Ind., and soon provided energy and impetus to the UGGR’s operations there. Elijah met and married Mary J., a native of Ohio ten years his junior. Their only child, Martha, was born in 1840 at Madison. Elijah established his blacksmith shop on the southeast corner of Third and Walnut Sts. He prospered and, before early 1842, had purchased a brick town home valued at $800 in the Georgetown section of Madison on Walnut St. near Fifth St. taxed at $3.00. He was listed as the owner and taxpayer on that property through 1847.

Soon, Elijah attained leadership in the Madison UGGR. He excelled at opening and developing secure routes. Often he went over into Ky., particularly along the Kentucky River artery, contacting free blacks and slaves on plantations. Elijah Anderson developed a solid relationship with free blacks at Carrollton, Ky., Frankfort, Ky., and Lawrenceburg, Ind. He worked well with white abolitionists. By 1845, the black conductors at Madison managed most of the Ohio River crossing points. These free blacks, shifted Madison’s UGGR operations from a passive to an active state. George De Baptiste claimed to have aided 108 runaways before 1846; Elijah said that he brought 200 through before 1850.

In 1845, two top agents of the American Anti-Slavery League—William Phelps and George Whitefield—originally from Wheeling, Va. (W.Va. today), but most recently working out of Cincinnati, came to Madison and over the next three years developed routes on Ky. soil, giving recruited plantation slaves information on safe routes and pick-up times and places. Later that year, a wealthy black abolitionist, John Simmons, was welcomed to Madison. Shortly thereafter, major routes were compromised and near captures occurred. Elijah Anderson, Chapman Harris, John Lott, and a number of other activists believed that Simmons had betrayed their cause for monetary reward; they beat Simmons severely and threatened him with death. Simmons sued in Ind.’s Jefferson Co. court; the legal fees over six years caused Anderson to lose his property at Madison.

A one-hundred-man posse of Kentuckians and local sympathizers marauded through Madison targeting the UGRR leadership. Free black activists, charged with inciting a riot, were fined sums of fifty and twenty-five dollars. George De Baptiste fled to Detroit, Mich., and became active there. John Lott headed for Canada. Chapman Harris hunkered down in nearby Eagle Hollow Indiana becoming a major leader during the 1850s. Griffin Booth was nearly drowned in the Ohio River by a mob. Amos Phillips was shot several times, recuperating at Lancaster, In. and then moved to the Little Africa settlement south of Vernon, Ind. It took Harris and Carter three to five years to rebuild the UGRR base back to its original capabilities.

As a result of increased danger, the fines levied against him, and the Madison riots, Elijah Anderson moved his operations base to Lawrenceburg, Ind. Both Elijah and Mary J. were fair-skinned, and in the 1850 Dearborn Co. Ind., census they both apparently passed as white. Quite likely at this time, Elijah became an agent of the American Anti-Slavery League or was funded in part from Detroit’s African-American leadership because he spent months on the road away from his blacksmith business. His Madison experience was helpful because Lawrenceburg, Ind., was hostile to free blacks and, by 1861, was trying to evict them from the city. During the early 1850s, Elijah was frequently linked to Cincinnati and to routes to Cleveland and Sandusky, Ohio.

As an experienced conductor, Anderson realized that bringing fugitives across by ones and twos was inefficient and likely to run afoul of the runaway-slave patrollers.  Working with William Wyman, station master at Aurora, Ind., with American Anti-Slavery League peddlers and ferrymen agents, and with his own local free black recruits, Elijah Anderson soon was able to bring large groups of fugitives out through Boone Co., Ky. Results showed almost immediately. In 1847, the David Powell family of six vanished from the John Norris plantation between the Lawrenceburg and Aurora, Ind., ferry landings. In May 1848, eight slaves owned by Benjamin Stevens opposite Rising Sun, Ind., made their escape. Gabriel Smith, an aged free black from Brookville, Ind., participated in helping Elijah bring fifty slaves north to Sandusky, Ohio. Boone Co., Ky., slave owners reported that twenty-nine slaves escaped between September 1 and November 17, 1852; in April 1853, they lost another forty slaves.

One clue as to how Elijah recruited among free blacks came from Lawrenceburg’s city records. On January 1, 1853, Israel Moody, as executor of the estate of Sandford Moody (deceased), sued the trustees of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), claiming that Sandford had paid several debts owed by the trustees, including $6.50 to Elijah Anderson. The other debts claimed were for wood and plastering. The a.m.E. congregations along the Ohio River Valley supplied many of the Underground Railroad activists during the 1850s.

During summer 1856, Elijah took a group of fugitives to Cleveland, Ohio, via the railroad’s network. He sought work to earn money before returning to Lawrenceburg. An abolitionist gave him the name of a person in Detroit, and Elijah worked in Detroit through fall 1856. He returned through Cincinnati and boarded a steamboat there.

In a case of mistaken identity, a Madison UGRR activist, William J. Anderson, was arrested at Carrollton, Ky., and accused of pirating hundreds of runaway slaves and carrying incendiary abolitionist materials into Ky. Anderson, who claimed in his defensive autobiography, that he had never worked south of the Ohio River and only had loaned his carriage to the UGRR, was defended by anti-slavery lawyers from Madison and released. Within a day or so, Elijah Anderson was recognized at Cincinnati or turned in, and Delos Blythe of the Alan Pinkerton Detective Agency at Louisville, Ky., came up to arrest him once the steamboat was underway. The free black community at Madison was certain that William J. Anderson had bought his way out of jail by turning in Elijah Anderson, and he was forced to flee to safer ground at Indianapolis, Ind.

At Carrollton, Ky., Elijah Anderson was accused of enticing a slave owned by Gen. William O. Butler, a peculiar charge since Butler had emancipated most of his slaves when he returned from the Mexican War in the late 1840s. It was among Butler’s freed slaves living near the mouth of the Kentucky River that Elijah Anderson likely had established a solid base for UGRR routes from the Bluegrass State. One of those freed slaves, Sandy Duncan, moved to Madison.

James T. Allison, an anti-slavery attorney from Madison, represented Elijah at Carrollton and won acquittal. But on the steps of the courthouse at Bedford, Ky., the Trimble Co. Sheriff arrested Elijah and incarcerated him. At Bedford, Elijah was accused of assisting and abetting a Negro boy named George to run away from his master living in Henry Co., Ky. Elijah claimed to have gone north for work. Found upon his person was a chatty letter he had written but not mailed to Mary J. that gave the name of several abolitionist friends in Cleveland and Detroit. Sensationalist newspaper accounts in Louisville claimed that finding the letters broke the back of a ring of abolitionists that had been stealing slaves in Ky. Depositions from G. W. Burrows of Cleveland, Ohio, stated that Elijah Anderson was in Cleveland on September 1, 1856, and sought employment from him, and that he had referred Elijah to a friend in Watertown, Wisc. A second deposition from John P. Clark stated that he had hired Elijah from November 1 to December 13, 1856, at his blacksmith shop at a Springwell, Mich. dry-dock.

But it was the eyewitness testimony of Right Ray, who headed a ring of slave-catchers operating in southeastern Ind., that led to Elijah Anderson’s ten-year sentence at the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, Ky. Right Ray testified that he had seen Elijah Anderson in Madison on May 11, 1856, ascending the Texas deck of a mail boat headed to Cincinnati. Elijah had a carpetbag and was in company of a boy answering the description of George, a runaway slave owned by John Scott of Henry Co. The boy escaped on May 8, and Scott had come to seek the services of Right Ray at Madison on May12, 1856.

During the next few months, Chapman Harris, then a leader of the free blacks and slaves active in the Madison UGRR, attempted twice to mount a posse to free Elijah from jail. Meanwhile the anti-slavery attorneys at Madison tried to negotiate an interstate gubernatorial pardon. When Elijah’s daughter, Martha, came to Frankfort to pick him up in April 1861 he was found dead in his cell of unexplained causes. The body was released to his family for burial. According to Wilbur Siebert and the Firelands Pioneer, Elijah Anderson claimed in 1855 to have brought out more than 1,000 runaway slaves, 800 after passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act.

Bordewich, Fergus M. Bound for Canaan, the Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America. New York: Amistad of Harper Collins, 2005.

Commonwealth of Kentucky vs. Elijah Anderson from Trimble Co. Circuit Court, Governors Papers, Ky. Libraries and Archives, Frankfort, Ky.

Dearborn Co. Civil Cases: Israel Moody vs. The Trustees of the African Methodist Episcopal Church January 1, 1853.

Griffler, Keith P. Front Line of Freedom, African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004.

Hudson, J. Blaine. Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2002.

Jefferson Co. (Ind.) Deed Book 6:320.

Lawrenceburg Register, May 11, 1848; November 17, 1852; November 14, 1853.

Madison, Ind., annotated plat C. 1848–50.

Madison Tax Assessment Book 2: 1838–1847.

Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom. New York: The McMillan Company, 1898.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

Post publication author’s note: 

Elijah Anderson, like several other African American conductors of the Underground Railroad, had a skilled craft as a blacksmith working with wrought iron for steam fittings, under-carriage fasteners, and iron fencing. So long as he was in Madison, Indiana, he was making a living, purchased a house and could still conduct fugitives up into Ripley County, Indiana, chiefly because there were so many other active Free Blacks in the UGRR there. However, once the Madison race riot occurred in 1845-46, the subsequent fines and attorney fees forced Elijah to move his family to Lawrenceburgh, Indiana. There the Free Black base for his operations was much smaller and his strategy of going down into Kentucky, to Boone and the other river counties to bring out a dozen or more fugitives at a time, taking them as far as Sandusky and Cleveland, Ohio, put strains on his financial support for his family. He was almost totally reliant on funds from abolitionist sources or from working at odd jobs in Ohio and Michigan.  Almost desperate at times to get resources back to Mary in Lawrenceburgh, Elijah came off as a charlatan to some Ohio abolitionists, to others who saw the effectiveness of his conducting tactics he was the “General Superintendent of the Underground Railroad.”

Once Elijah was jailed in the penitentiary at Frankfort, Kentucky, his friend and colleage, Rev. Chapman Harris, tried twice to recruit arms and men to break Elijah out of jail. Harris was arrested in Louisville trying to obtain one or more guns, but he managed to cook up a story that he was going to a church function in Indiana and his boat drifted with a high current to the Kentucky side. dpc

 

Civil War in Carroll County, Kentucky

This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky

 

The Civil War in Carroll Co. Alarms, rumors, and anxiety swept through the Ohio River counties of Northern Kentucky in the months leading up to the Civil War. In late 1860, a local militia of about fifty men and boys, calling themselves “The Invincibles,” was created in Ky. at Hunter’s Bottom in Carroll Co. These young men included Capt. W. J. Hoagland, First Lt. William H. Bradley, Second Lt. Henry Spillman, and Third Lt. Jarrett Banks. They were organized as part of Simon Bolivar Buckner’s Ky., State Guards. Brothers Harvey, George, and Clinton Conway were among the privates.

Within months, Buckner, who rejected a commission in the Union Army to become as Confederate brigadier general, had taken most of the Ky. Guards and their arms and equipment into the Confederacy. From “The Invincibles,” eight went into the Union Army and sixteen to the Confederates. Many of the boys from Hunter’s Bottom eventually joined Col. Henry L. Giltner’s Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, CSA.

In September 1861, a number of men from Carroll Co. rendezvoused with General Buckner and the Confederates at Camp Boone including Moses T. Pryor and his brothers-in-law Gideon B. Giltner and Henry Liter Giltner. Almost immediately, Gen. Humphrey Marshall appointed Henry L. Giltner as his aide de camp.

In summer 1862, as Major Gen. Don Carlos Buell of the Union chased Gen. Braxton Bragg of the Confederacy from Tenn. into Ky., the Confederates were mounting a major recruiting drive in central Ky. Col, (later Gen.) John Hunt Morgan, commander of the Second Ky. Cavalry, CSA, and Gen. Kirby Smith among others were convinced that thousands of Kentuckians around the Bluegrass would swarm to the Confederate cause.

Meanwhile, Union troops were being deployed and trained in Ky., and Union Home Guards were being equipped. This led to a number of skirmishes in the lower regions of the Kentucky River. From June 20–23 1862, Confederates were sighted in Owen Co., and on August 31 a skirmish took place near Monterey, Ky., along the Kentucky River. Carroll Co. was full of news and rumors.

In July 1862, Henry L. Giltner, previously the Sheriff of Carroll Co., now a CSA Col., and Captains Moses T. Pryor, Nathan Parker of Bedford, Ky., Peter Everett of Montgomery, Ky., and sixteen other officers sought additional Confederate troops, especially for the cavalry. Although the overwhelming sentiment in rural Carroll Co. was in favor of the Confederacy, the CSA recruiters found a substantial number of entrenched Union forces in the region. They were part of the Union troop positioned along the Ohio River in defense of General Bragg’s incursion.

On September 17, Giltner, astride his dapple-grey warhorse, “Billy,” led about one hundred Confederate cavalrymen into Carrollton, Ky. In an act of retaliation for the recent arrest of rebel leaders [Thomas] Dugan, Southgate [probably William, John or James Southard], and Barnum [Edwin Burnham], the Confederate calvarymen seized the courthouse, tore down Union flags and hoisted the Confederate flag, arrested a number of citizens, including Charles Emery, R. H. Jett, and Monticue T. McClure, and hunted unsuccessfully for the Provost Marshal, Benjamn E. Archer. A number of Union supporters had already fled across the Ohio River to Ind. The Cincinnati Daily Commercial claimed that the Carrollton raid was backed up by 1,200 CSA nearby, but that may have referred to CSA cavalry activities relating to the sweep across to Lawrenceburg in Ind. and back to Perryville in central Ky. that culminated October 8, 1862.

Between October 15 and October 20, Union forces swept through the Northern Kentucky region, and the newly recruited Confederates headed inland to join with Gen. Humphrey Marshall in preparation for the Battle of Perryville. According to the muster lists, the Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, began with 900 men in total. Many of the Carroll Co. men were in Company F and came from Carrollton Eagle Station, Ghent, Hunter’s Bottom, Jordan, Mill Creek, Northville, Preston Ville Sanders, and Whites Run.

The new cavalry unit was placed under the Department of East Tenn.; later the Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, was placed under the Department of Western Va. and East Tenn. The field officers were Col. Henry L. Giltner, Lt. Col. Moses T. Pryor, and Major Nathan Parker. The Fourth Ky. Calvary, CSA, saw substantial action in eastern Tenn. and participated in various raids into eastern Ky. One of the high points of the unit’s combat came November 10, 1863, when Confederate cavalry units under Col. Henry L. Giltner as commander of the Confederate Second Cavalry Brigade, captured 550 prisoners, thirty wagons of military and commissary equipment, four brass 6-pounder James guns, a large number of horses and arms belonging to the Second East Tenn. Mounted Infantry, Seventh Ohio Cavalry, and Phillips’ battery at Big Creek in Tenn. Among the Confederate officers singled out and complimented in the Giltner’s field report on the engagement were Lt. Col. Trimble of the Tenth Kentucky Calvary and Major Parker of the Fourth Ky Calvary.

In June 1864, Giltner’s forces participated in Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s “Last Raid” through Ky. including the battles at Mt. Sterling and Cynthiana, and they proved themselves battle-hardened campaigners in spite of the Confederate losses. The death of General Morgan (September 4, 1864, at Greeneville, Tenn.,) affected many of the men in the Fourth Ky Calvary, CSA.

Had the war ended the summer of 1864, Giltner and his cavalry regiments would have achieved high praise. However, in October 1864, Col. Henry Giltner, as commanding officer of the Seventh Battalion Confederate Cavalry, was ordered to defend the salt and lead mines and the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. Thus, the Kentuckians became enmeshed in one of the most despicable acts of the Civil War, the deliberate massacre of wounded and captured Negro troops of the Fifth U.S. Colored Cavalry (USCC) at Saltville, Va. Although chiefly undisciplined cavalrymen conducted the atrocities, nevertheless, several Ky. officers failed to halt the killings, including Capt. Edward O. Guerrant. At one point George Dallas Mosgrove, of Carroll Co., who wrote the Ky. Fourth Calvary CSA’s regimental history, although present, failed to prevent the murder of captured black soldiers inside a cabin. Eyewitnesses from the Union Twelfth Ohio and the Eleventh Mich. attested to the massacres. Estimates of the number of black soldiers massacred vary wildly from New South historian William Marvel’s estimate that only five were killed and no more than a dozen, to the National Park Service claims that thirty-five Fifth USCC were killed in action. A more recent study by Thomas Mays and other researchers concluded that upwards of 50 of the 400 men of the Fifth USCC were killed. After the Civil War, CSA guerilla leader Champ Ferguson was hanged for a series of murders of Union soldiers and civilians during 1861–1865, including taking five wounded USCC soldiers from the Union surgeon at Saltville and murdering them.

In the fading days of the Civil War, Colonel Giltner was given supreme command of CSA forces in Lee, Scott, Russell and Wise counties in Va. on February 16, 1865; the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in Va. took place on April 9, 1865, and the Fourth Ky. Calvary, CSA, returned to Ky. and surrendered at Mt. Sterling, Ky. on April 30, 1865.

Most of the men from Carroll Co. returned home. Henry Giltner became a merchant at Milton, Ky., but by 1880, he had moved to Tenn. During the next few decades the legend of Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s Second Ky. Cavalry, CSA, and Henry Giltner’s Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, merged somewhat and became much romanticized.

Several strong Unionist families lived in Carrollton. In an interesting dispatch dated September 14, 1862, a letter from Unionists in Carrollton to Capt. Joseph H. Williams, commander of the gunboat Cottage, was quoted in the Cincinnati Daily Commercial: “Respected Sir—Please accept these refreshments from the undersigned Union ladies, with our many thanks to you and your command for your timely protection; and we remain, respectfully, your obliged friends, Mrs. Mary D. Nely, Mrs. H. Hamilton, Mrs. F. Rabb, Mrs. S. McClure.”

Among the merchants at Carrollton were a number of Northerners: Theoderick Fisher from N. H.; Peter C. Adams, B. B. Bennett, Henry Gilbert, W. H. Swain, and John W. White from Mass.; Lyman Martin, James T. Root, William Root, from Conn.; John D. Ames, Samuel Ball, and John W. Root from N.Y.; Theophilus Reed, Joseph Vance and from N.J.; James Robb and his son David Robb, who was a cadet at West Point Military Academy in N.Y.

In addition, a number of Carroll Co. men served in the Thirteenth Ky. Volunteer Infantry, Union. Officers from Carroll Co. in that regiment included: Capt. Albert M. Jett, Carrollton; Second Lt. Charles McCracken, Carrollton; Capt. P. Gilbert Fisher, Carrollton, dismissed January 5, 1863; and First Lt. William L. Lee, Carrollton, killed in action, April 28, 1862. Carroll Co. men also served in Louisville-raised and southern Ind. Union units as well, but the muster lists are inconclusive.

Throughout the war, small detachments of Union Naval forces patrolled the Ohio River and stopped at Carrollton occasionally. Once the western Ohio and Mississippi river campaigns began, most of the inland Union Navy was engaged around Vicksburg, Miss., and New Orleans, La. The Union received most of the news and information along the Ohio River from friendly steamboat captains such as Captain Hildreth of Switzerland Co., Ind. who manned The Florence and reported regularly in Cincinnati, Ohio. It has been claimed that Abraham Lincoln stopped at Hildreth’s house between Lamb and Vevay, Ind. during his 1864 presidential campaign.

The Union Army posted troops at Carrollton during the Civil War. Many residents, particularly in the surrounding rural area, saw these troops as enemies occupying their land. The Union officers and men, in turn, felt hostile enemies and spies surrounded them. At Carrollton, in 1862 the officers irritated local legend Gen. William O. Butler who had declared neutrality before the war began. Men and horses from the Union Army were posted in the Presbyterian Church, Butler’s home congregation, and the local lore claims that much damage was done to the building and grounds.

Whatever neutrality or pro-Union sentiment was apparent among the white citizens of Carroll Co. disintegrated quickly with the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863 and the subsequent arrival of Negro troops in Ky. Around August 22, 1864, a U.S. Colored Troop (USCT) squad, posted at Ghent, Ky., to protect recruiters for the Fifth U.S. Colored Cavalry, arrested James Southard, a leading Confederate advocate and local ferryman. He owned land along the Ohio River that formed the Ghent landing. Southard’s brother notified Col. George Jesse in Henry Co. in Ky. that James Southard had been taken by USCT troops. Jesse’s hardened remnants of Morgan’s last Ky. raid quickly routed the raw recruits of the 117th USCT (Gex Landing, Skirmish at). Rumors spread, fed by Louisville-based Union officers and a friendly newspaper that another Saltville-like incident had occurred, a massacre of Negro troops. The record was set straight only after Col. Jesse released the captured USCT officer and men at Owenton, Ky., the next month.

With few exceptions, after the war, the Confederate soldiers returned to Carroll Co. and gradually took positions of political power and civic responsibility. By 1880, most leadership positions in church and state were held by former CSA soldiers. Each funeral of a Confederate veteran called forth marches or honor guards in full regalia prominently chronicled in the Carrollton Democrat. A succession of former CSA officers was elected Ky. governors, including Simon Bolivar Buckner (1887–1891).

A Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) Post #78 was established at Carrollton and named the William L. Lee post after a Carrollton native who had died in 1862, with the Union’s Thirteenth Ky. Infantry at Bowling Green, Ky. The Carrollton GAR Post had five members that attended the 1895 state GAR convention: W.M. Bowling J. G. Bunton, A. C. Jones, J. T. Lewis, and A.N. Jett who was listed as commander. In 1889, the Carrollton post had seventeen members, and in 1906, thirteen.

Adjutant General’s Report, Kentucky: Confederate Troops.

 

Adjutant General’s Report: Kentucky Union Troops.

 

Brown, David E. “Was There a Massacre in Saltville in 1864?” Review of Thomas D. Mays The Saltville Massacre, Albuquerque, N.M.: Ryan Place Publishers, 1995.

Carrollton Democrat, May 24, 1884.

CDC, September 14, 1862, September 19, 1862.

Field Report by Col. Henry L. Giltner. Commander, Second Cavalry Brigade, CSA, November 10, 1863 to Major Thomas Rowland, Assistant Adjutant General available at home.cinci.rr.com/secondtennessee/giltner.html, accessed May 7, 2006.

Gentry, Mary Ann. A History of Carroll County. Madison, Ind., 1984.

Marvel, William. “The Battle of Saltville: Massacre or Myth?” Blue and Gray Magazine, August 1991.

Mosgrove, George Dallas. Kentucky Cavaliers in Dixie: The Reminiscences of a Confederate Cavalryman. Reprint. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Prichard, James. Review of Kenneth A. Hafendorfer, They Died by Twos and Tens. KH Press, 1995.

Diane Perrine Coon

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