Adam Crosswhite, Slave Escape with Entire Family

 This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

 

Crosswhite, Adam (b. October 17, 1799, Bourbon Co., Ky.; d. January 23, 1878, Marshall, Mich.). Adam Crosswhite was a fair-skinned mulatto slave from Bourbon Co. His father was a white slave owner named Powers, who was a half-brother of Miss Ann Crosswhite. Ownership shifted to Miss Crosswhite prior to her marriage to Ned Stone. In turn, Stone sold Adam Crosswhite for $200, and in 1819 Adam was traded to Francis Giltner, a planter in Bourbon Co. There, Adam married Sarah in a slave ceremony and raised four children. Before 1830, Francis Giltner moved the entire family and his slaves to Hunters Bottom in Carroll Co., Ky. along the Ohio River.

In August 1843, Adam learned that Francis Giltner planned to sell part of his family. Crosswhite sought help from the Underground Railroad organization in Madison, Ind. As runaway slaves, and after having two narrow escapes using the newly organized safe routes through Ind., the Crosswhites—Adam, Sarah, Benjamin, Johnson, and two girls. Another child was born in Michigan. The Crosswhites managed to escape to Marshall, a city in south central Mich. There, Adam maintained a low profile. He worked, built a cabin, and became accepted in the village.

In response to the increased number of runaway slaves through the 1840s, slave owners in the north central river counties and the Bluegrass of Ky. sought to recover their financial investments. In 1846, a coalition of slave owners met in Covington, Ky., and hired a spy to ferret out runaway slaves in southern Mich. In late fall 1846, this spy, who called himself Carpenter, arrived in Marshall and in Cass Co. Masquerading as an abolitionist from Worcester, Mass., he visited the homes of free people of color. The information he gathered led to two major raids by Kentuckians, the earliest at Marshall in Calhoun Co., and the second in Cass Co.

In December 1846, acting on sources gathered by the spy, a young attorney in Lexington, Ky., Francis Troutman, grandson of a former owner and nephew of Francis Giltner, came to Calhoun Co., Mich., posing as a schoolteacher seeking a place to settle. He hired local Deputy Sheriff Harvey Dixon to pose as a census taker to scout the Crosswhite family. On January 20, 1847, Troutman reappeared at Marshall with three other Kentuckians—William Franklin Ford, David Giltner, and James S. Lee—- and, accompanied by Deputy Sheriff Dixon, went to the Crosswhite cabin. There they attempted to capture Adam, but he and his son Johnson fled through a cornfield; Crosswhite accompanied Deputy Sheriff Dixon to secure counsel, and Troutman stayed in the Crosswhite cabin with drawn pistol as several neighbors attempted to enter the house, one of whom, a Mr. Hackett, was assaulted by Troutman.

When Dixon returned, he charged Troutman with assault and battery on Hackett and with trespassing and housebreaking. Troutman paid $100 in fines the next day in the local court before Judge Randall Hobart. Meanwhile, the townspeople hid the Crosswhite family in the attic of George Ingersoll’s mill. Isaac Jacobs, the hostler at the Marshall House, hired a team and covered wagon and,on the night of January 27, Ingersoll and Asa B. Cook drove the Crosswhite family to Jackson where they boarded a train to Detroit. George De Baptiste, the former Underground Railroad leader at Madison, Ind., met the Crosswhites in Detroit and took them into Canada.

The Kentuckians were furious, and several slave owner meetings were held. Citizens of Trimble and Carroll counties, led by Moses Hoagland of Hunters Bottom, met at Kings Tavern on February 10 and drew up three resolutions demanding that the Ky. legislature call upon its U.S. senators and congressmen to pass federal legislation giving slave owners redress and imprisoning and fining those who enticed, harbored, or aided runaway slaves.

By June 1847, Mich. newspapers along the southern tier were equally outraged that Ky. posses were seizing fugitives in a free state whose citizens detested slavery. In August 1847, a large Ky. raid led by Boone Co. (Ky.) slave owners George W. Brazier and Benjamin Stevens was repulsed from Cass Co. after attempting to recapture several former slaves.

The legislative wheels were set in motion. Joseph Underwood’s report and resolutions from the Ky. legislature were sent to the U.S. Senate on December 20, 1847 and, in May 1848, Senator Andrew P. Butler of S.C. printed his report favoring strong federal sanctions against those aiding runaway slaves; 10,000 copies were distributed. Momentum built for passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act that made it mandatory for U.S.  marshals to seize runaway slaves, for representatives of the slave owner to identify the runaways, and for severe fines to be levied on all those aiding and harboring fugitive slaves. Henry Clay, a personal friend of Francis Giltner, proposed a clause mandating restitution of property to southerners reclaiming runaway slaves.

Attorney Francis Troutman returned to Mich. in May 1848 to gather evidence and press charges against those who aided the Crosswhite family. On June 1, 1848, in Detroit, Justice McLane of the federal bench heard Giltner vs. Gorham et al. McLane charged the jury with ignoring their attitude toward slavery and deciding the case based only on the plaintiffs right to the services of the fugitives, and therefore, the right to obtain financial redress. The first trial jury hung and was discharged on June 12. A second trial was held and the jury awarded Giltner $1,926 in damages and heavy court costs, for a total of about $4,500. Zachariah Chandler, a leading antislavery Whig in Detroit, paid the greater part of the fine. Juryman Philo Dibble, a resident of Marshall, was publicly chastised from the pulpit by his Presbyterian minister for his participation in the verdict.

Northern reaction to passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act was swift. By 1854, Ind. Mich., and Ohio had formed significant Republican parties that were obtaining antislavery majorities in their state legislative bodies, sending anti-slave congressmen and senators to Washington, and, by 1860, giving Abraham Lincoln the presidential candidacy.

The Crosswhite family returned to Marshall, Mich., after the Civil War; in 1878, Adam Crosswhite died and was buried in the Oakridge Cemetery in that city. In 1923, Michigan erected a bronze marker set in a stone boulder near the old Crosswhite cabin. The marker commemorates the runaway slave from Carroll Co., Ky., and the role of the people of Marshall in repulsing the Ky. posse.

Battle Creek Enquirer, July 14, 1907, January 28, 1929, July 3, 1930, April 1960.

Battle Creek, Michigan, Journal, 1927.

Battle Creek, Michigan, Tribune, January 20, 1847.

Crosswhite File, Calhoun Co., Mich., Public Library.

The Enquirer and Evening News of Battle Creek, Michigan, February 18, 1923, February 11, 1945, February 17, 1974.

Giltner vs. Gorham et al; Case No. 5,453, Circuit Court D, Michigan [114 McLean 402: 6 West Law J, 491].

Fuller, George N. ed. Michigan: A Centennial History of the State and Its People. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co, 1939.

Gara, Larry. The Liberty Line, University of Kentucky Press. 1961.

Gardner, History of Calhoun County, Michigan, 1913.

History of Calhoun County, Michigan, L. H. Everts & Co., Philadelphia, 1877.

Journal of the (Ky.) House of Representatives, (February 13, 1847): 338–41.

Michigan History, 53, no. 2 (1969): 131–43.

20th Congress, First Session [Senate] Ref. Com. No. 143.

The Weekly Commonwealth, Frankfort, Ky., February 23, 1847.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

 

Richard Daly, Underground Railroad Conductor, Escape to Canada

 This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

 

Richard Daly line drawing from Detroit Sunday News-Tribune Jul 22, 1894Daly, Richard (date and place of birth unknown), The birthplace and birth date of Richard Daly, like those of many Ky. slaves, are unknown, but he was still alive in 1894 in Windsor, Canada, when interviewed by a reporter for a Detroit, Mich., newspaper. Richard Daly’s four children were born between 1840 and 1850 in Hunter’s Bottom, in Carroll Co., Ky. His oldest girl, Mary, was listed as being age seventeen in the 1860 Detroit census.

In the 1850s, Richard, his brother, Joe Daly, and Tom Owen were slaves owned by Samuel Fearn Sr. at Hunter’s Bottom, Ky. The Fearn family came to Ky. from Buckingham Co., Va. In 1803, Samuel Fearn (1766–1828) and his oldest son George (1796–1869) came to Hunter’s Bottom, a ten-mile stretch of Ohio River bottomland between Canip and Locust creeks. The Fearns had first moved to Bourbon Co. in Ky., but encountering some kind of land interference issues there, proceeded north.

Samuel Fearn, the family’s fourth child, was born at Hunter’s Bottom in 1806 and married Elizabeth Owen in 1826. George and Samuel Fearn together owned about 1,000 acres along the banks of the Ohio River, straddling the Carroll and Trimble county line, but Samuel Fearn’s main income came from his gristmill and packet steamship businesses in Milton, on the Ky. side of the Ohio River opposite Madison, Ind. He also purchased timberland in Jackson Co., Ind., on the White River. George Fearn speculated in land along the wharf area in Madison and along the Ind. shoreline on the east side of Madison. The two Fearn brothers were quite wealthy.

Sam Fearn's home c. 1910 Hunters Bottom
Sam Fearn’s plantation house at Hunter’s Bottom, Kentucky

Samuel Fearn had three slaves; his brother George, a bachelor, owned four or five slaves. The Fearn family history states that George Fearn had become an ardent Methodist and emancipated all of his slaves in his will. George was so pro-Union and so openly opposed to slavery that horses were stolen from his farm in a targeted attack by Confederate raiders during the Civil War.

In his 1894 interview, Richard Daly referred to Samuel and George Fearn as “kind,” and it appeared that Richard had many advantages over other slaves in the region. He lived in a brick house behind the main Samuel Fearn homestead and was permitted to take produce to market in Madison, in order to earn money to purchase his freedom. In fact, Samuel Fearn had set an extremely low purchase price, $100, for Richard’s freedom , with comparable prices for slaves of Richard’s age and ability rising well above $800-$900. Richard claimed that by 1856 he had already saved $100 “in his pocket.” Fearn, like many of the Hunter’s Bottom slave owners, allowed frequent conjugal visits by Richard to his wife Kitty, a house servant owned by Moses Hoagland who lived east of the Fearns along the Ohio River toward Carrollton, Ky. Richard and Kitty had four living children that by law and custom were owned by Moses Hoagland.

Eagle Hollow Vertical
Eagle Hollow on Indiana side of Ohio River

But the most unusual fact about Richard Daly was that he had worked actively in the Underground Railroad (UGRR) for some years. He stated that he had ferried thirty fugitive slaves across the Ohio River before 1856. He would meet the fugitive slaves two miles above Milton and row them across in his small boat. During the 1850s, this route through Eagle Hollow in Carroll Co., Ky., was one of the most active crossing points on the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Ky. Richard’s method of signaling his friend, a white leader of the UGRR (probably John Carr) was also highly unusual. Richard said that he would row into the middle of the Ohio River and shoot a revolver in the air. The UGRR agent would then shoot his revolver in response. By the time Richard arrived at the Ind. shore, his white friend would be ready and take charge of the runaways.

It was well known that Samuel Fearn enjoyed hunting and had several hunting dogs always running through the house and farm. But for a slave to have access to a revolver and ammunition is remarkable. Further, the sound of gunshots in the middle of the Ohio River at night carried to both shores. If the Indiana UGRR agent heard it, the Fearns would have heard it also. Therefore, it has been suggested locally that the Fearn brothers were tacitly, if not actively, approving Richard’s aiding of runaway slaves.

Richard said that he was happy in his circumstances and had no plans to escape, but then his wife Kitty unexpectedly died. Richard was concerned about his children and asked Mrs. Hoagland (Sarah Payne of Lexington, Ky.) to keep them in Hunter’s Bottom, and she agreed. However, a short time later, the Hoagland daughter married a doctor and moved to Louisville and asked for Mary, the oldest Daly girl, to go with her permanently. When Richard learned his family was to be separated, he went that same night to pick up all four children. They crossed the Ohio River and took the Madison UGRR route north through Ind. Richard said that they rode horses northward successively accompanied by two sets of UGRR agents, one from dark to midnight and another from midnight to dawn. The Daly family slept in various farmhouses until they reached Mich. There, they boarded the Michigan Central Railroad to Detroit, and then crossed over the ferry to Windsor, Canada.

In Canada, Richard worked feeding cattle for a man named Hiram Walker, an exporter of livestock to Great Britain from a farm located along the Detroit River. Daly said that he had crossed the Atlantic Ocean several times with these shipments. At some point, Richard married a second time. In 1894, three of the children who escaped with him were living in Detroit, and one child had died in Windsor.

Fearn Hill enhanced, hunters bottom
George Fearn’s Fearn Hill Plantation at Hunter’s Bottom Kentucky

Apparently Joe Daly and Tom Owen continued to live with Samuel Fearn at Hunter’s Bottom even after the Thirteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution freed all slaves. When George Fearn died in 1869 he left Fearn Hill, his antebellum home, to his nephew, George Fearn. The emancipation clause was still in George’s will, but it was moot since his slaves were already free by law.

Blassingame, John W. ed. Slave Testimony. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Coon, Diane Perrine, “Southeastern Indiana’s Underground Railroad Routes and Operations,” TM, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and “Chapman Harris and the St. Paul’s Baptist Church, Madison, Indiana,” for University of Louisville graduate program.

Emma McClaran Fearn family Bible in possession of Larry Douglas Smith of Louisville, Ky.

Smith, Larry Douglas, “The Fearns of Hunters Bottom, Kentucky,” TM at Kentucky Historical Society.

Interview with Richard Daly, 1894, Detroit Sunday News Tribune, Michigan State Library Newspaper Project.

Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 1864 Census.

Diane Perrine Coon

 

Civil War in Carroll County, Kentucky

This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky

 

The Civil War in Carroll Co. Alarms, rumors, and anxiety swept through the Ohio River counties of Northern Kentucky in the months leading up to the Civil War. In late 1860, a local militia of about fifty men and boys, calling themselves “The Invincibles,” was created in Ky. at Hunter’s Bottom in Carroll Co. These young men included Capt. W. J. Hoagland, First Lt. William H. Bradley, Second Lt. Henry Spillman, and Third Lt. Jarrett Banks. They were organized as part of Simon Bolivar Buckner’s Ky., State Guards. Brothers Harvey, George, and Clinton Conway were among the privates.

Within months, Buckner, who rejected a commission in the Union Army to become as Confederate brigadier general, had taken most of the Ky. Guards and their arms and equipment into the Confederacy. From “The Invincibles,” eight went into the Union Army and sixteen to the Confederates. Many of the boys from Hunter’s Bottom eventually joined Col. Henry L. Giltner’s Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, CSA.

In September 1861, a number of men from Carroll Co. rendezvoused with General Buckner and the Confederates at Camp Boone including Moses T. Pryor and his brothers-in-law Gideon B. Giltner and Henry Liter Giltner. Almost immediately, Gen. Humphrey Marshall appointed Henry L. Giltner as his aide de camp.

In summer 1862, as Major Gen. Don Carlos Buell of the Union chased Gen. Braxton Bragg of the Confederacy from Tenn. into Ky., the Confederates were mounting a major recruiting drive in central Ky. Col, (later Gen.) John Hunt Morgan, commander of the Second Ky. Cavalry, CSA, and Gen. Kirby Smith among others were convinced that thousands of Kentuckians around the Bluegrass would swarm to the Confederate cause.

Meanwhile, Union troops were being deployed and trained in Ky., and Union Home Guards were being equipped. This led to a number of skirmishes in the lower regions of the Kentucky River. From June 20–23 1862, Confederates were sighted in Owen Co., and on August 31 a skirmish took place near Monterey, Ky., along the Kentucky River. Carroll Co. was full of news and rumors.

In July 1862, Henry L. Giltner, previously the Sheriff of Carroll Co., now a CSA Col., and Captains Moses T. Pryor, Nathan Parker of Bedford, Ky., Peter Everett of Montgomery, Ky., and sixteen other officers sought additional Confederate troops, especially for the cavalry. Although the overwhelming sentiment in rural Carroll Co. was in favor of the Confederacy, the CSA recruiters found a substantial number of entrenched Union forces in the region. They were part of the Union troop positioned along the Ohio River in defense of General Bragg’s incursion.

On September 17, Giltner, astride his dapple-grey warhorse, “Billy,” led about one hundred Confederate cavalrymen into Carrollton, Ky. In an act of retaliation for the recent arrest of rebel leaders [Thomas] Dugan, Southgate [probably William, John or James Southard], and Barnum [Edwin Burnham], the Confederate calvarymen seized the courthouse, tore down Union flags and hoisted the Confederate flag, arrested a number of citizens, including Charles Emery, R. H. Jett, and Monticue T. McClure, and hunted unsuccessfully for the Provost Marshal, Benjamn E. Archer. A number of Union supporters had already fled across the Ohio River to Ind. The Cincinnati Daily Commercial claimed that the Carrollton raid was backed up by 1,200 CSA nearby, but that may have referred to CSA cavalry activities relating to the sweep across to Lawrenceburg in Ind. and back to Perryville in central Ky. that culminated October 8, 1862.

Between October 15 and October 20, Union forces swept through the Northern Kentucky region, and the newly recruited Confederates headed inland to join with Gen. Humphrey Marshall in preparation for the Battle of Perryville. According to the muster lists, the Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, began with 900 men in total. Many of the Carroll Co. men were in Company F and came from Carrollton Eagle Station, Ghent, Hunter’s Bottom, Jordan, Mill Creek, Northville, Preston Ville Sanders, and Whites Run.

The new cavalry unit was placed under the Department of East Tenn.; later the Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, was placed under the Department of Western Va. and East Tenn. The field officers were Col. Henry L. Giltner, Lt. Col. Moses T. Pryor, and Major Nathan Parker. The Fourth Ky. Calvary, CSA, saw substantial action in eastern Tenn. and participated in various raids into eastern Ky. One of the high points of the unit’s combat came November 10, 1863, when Confederate cavalry units under Col. Henry L. Giltner as commander of the Confederate Second Cavalry Brigade, captured 550 prisoners, thirty wagons of military and commissary equipment, four brass 6-pounder James guns, a large number of horses and arms belonging to the Second East Tenn. Mounted Infantry, Seventh Ohio Cavalry, and Phillips’ battery at Big Creek in Tenn. Among the Confederate officers singled out and complimented in the Giltner’s field report on the engagement were Lt. Col. Trimble of the Tenth Kentucky Calvary and Major Parker of the Fourth Ky Calvary.

In June 1864, Giltner’s forces participated in Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s “Last Raid” through Ky. including the battles at Mt. Sterling and Cynthiana, and they proved themselves battle-hardened campaigners in spite of the Confederate losses. The death of General Morgan (September 4, 1864, at Greeneville, Tenn.,) affected many of the men in the Fourth Ky Calvary, CSA.

Had the war ended the summer of 1864, Giltner and his cavalry regiments would have achieved high praise. However, in October 1864, Col. Henry Giltner, as commanding officer of the Seventh Battalion Confederate Cavalry, was ordered to defend the salt and lead mines and the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. Thus, the Kentuckians became enmeshed in one of the most despicable acts of the Civil War, the deliberate massacre of wounded and captured Negro troops of the Fifth U.S. Colored Cavalry (USCC) at Saltville, Va. Although chiefly undisciplined cavalrymen conducted the atrocities, nevertheless, several Ky. officers failed to halt the killings, including Capt. Edward O. Guerrant. At one point George Dallas Mosgrove, of Carroll Co., who wrote the Ky. Fourth Calvary CSA’s regimental history, although present, failed to prevent the murder of captured black soldiers inside a cabin. Eyewitnesses from the Union Twelfth Ohio and the Eleventh Mich. attested to the massacres. Estimates of the number of black soldiers massacred vary wildly from New South historian William Marvel’s estimate that only five were killed and no more than a dozen, to the National Park Service claims that thirty-five Fifth USCC were killed in action. A more recent study by Thomas Mays and other researchers concluded that upwards of 50 of the 400 men of the Fifth USCC were killed. After the Civil War, CSA guerilla leader Champ Ferguson was hanged for a series of murders of Union soldiers and civilians during 1861–1865, including taking five wounded USCC soldiers from the Union surgeon at Saltville and murdering them.

In the fading days of the Civil War, Colonel Giltner was given supreme command of CSA forces in Lee, Scott, Russell and Wise counties in Va. on February 16, 1865; the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in Va. took place on April 9, 1865, and the Fourth Ky. Calvary, CSA, returned to Ky. and surrendered at Mt. Sterling, Ky. on April 30, 1865.

Most of the men from Carroll Co. returned home. Henry Giltner became a merchant at Milton, Ky., but by 1880, he had moved to Tenn. During the next few decades the legend of Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s Second Ky. Cavalry, CSA, and Henry Giltner’s Fourth Ky. Cavalry, CSA, merged somewhat and became much romanticized.

Several strong Unionist families lived in Carrollton. In an interesting dispatch dated September 14, 1862, a letter from Unionists in Carrollton to Capt. Joseph H. Williams, commander of the gunboat Cottage, was quoted in the Cincinnati Daily Commercial: “Respected Sir—Please accept these refreshments from the undersigned Union ladies, with our many thanks to you and your command for your timely protection; and we remain, respectfully, your obliged friends, Mrs. Mary D. Nely, Mrs. H. Hamilton, Mrs. F. Rabb, Mrs. S. McClure.”

Among the merchants at Carrollton were a number of Northerners: Theoderick Fisher from N. H.; Peter C. Adams, B. B. Bennett, Henry Gilbert, W. H. Swain, and John W. White from Mass.; Lyman Martin, James T. Root, William Root, from Conn.; John D. Ames, Samuel Ball, and John W. Root from N.Y.; Theophilus Reed, Joseph Vance and from N.J.; James Robb and his son David Robb, who was a cadet at West Point Military Academy in N.Y.

In addition, a number of Carroll Co. men served in the Thirteenth Ky. Volunteer Infantry, Union. Officers from Carroll Co. in that regiment included: Capt. Albert M. Jett, Carrollton; Second Lt. Charles McCracken, Carrollton; Capt. P. Gilbert Fisher, Carrollton, dismissed January 5, 1863; and First Lt. William L. Lee, Carrollton, killed in action, April 28, 1862. Carroll Co. men also served in Louisville-raised and southern Ind. Union units as well, but the muster lists are inconclusive.

Throughout the war, small detachments of Union Naval forces patrolled the Ohio River and stopped at Carrollton occasionally. Once the western Ohio and Mississippi river campaigns began, most of the inland Union Navy was engaged around Vicksburg, Miss., and New Orleans, La. The Union received most of the news and information along the Ohio River from friendly steamboat captains such as Captain Hildreth of Switzerland Co., Ind. who manned The Florence and reported regularly in Cincinnati, Ohio. It has been claimed that Abraham Lincoln stopped at Hildreth’s house between Lamb and Vevay, Ind. during his 1864 presidential campaign.

The Union Army posted troops at Carrollton during the Civil War. Many residents, particularly in the surrounding rural area, saw these troops as enemies occupying their land. The Union officers and men, in turn, felt hostile enemies and spies surrounded them. At Carrollton, in 1862 the officers irritated local legend Gen. William O. Butler who had declared neutrality before the war began. Men and horses from the Union Army were posted in the Presbyterian Church, Butler’s home congregation, and the local lore claims that much damage was done to the building and grounds.

Whatever neutrality or pro-Union sentiment was apparent among the white citizens of Carroll Co. disintegrated quickly with the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863 and the subsequent arrival of Negro troops in Ky. Around August 22, 1864, a U.S. Colored Troop (USCT) squad, posted at Ghent, Ky., to protect recruiters for the Fifth U.S. Colored Cavalry, arrested James Southard, a leading Confederate advocate and local ferryman. He owned land along the Ohio River that formed the Ghent landing. Southard’s brother notified Col. George Jesse in Henry Co. in Ky. that James Southard had been taken by USCT troops. Jesse’s hardened remnants of Morgan’s last Ky. raid quickly routed the raw recruits of the 117th USCT (Gex Landing, Skirmish at). Rumors spread, fed by Louisville-based Union officers and a friendly newspaper that another Saltville-like incident had occurred, a massacre of Negro troops. The record was set straight only after Col. Jesse released the captured USCT officer and men at Owenton, Ky., the next month.

With few exceptions, after the war, the Confederate soldiers returned to Carroll Co. and gradually took positions of political power and civic responsibility. By 1880, most leadership positions in church and state were held by former CSA soldiers. Each funeral of a Confederate veteran called forth marches or honor guards in full regalia prominently chronicled in the Carrollton Democrat. A succession of former CSA officers was elected Ky. governors, including Simon Bolivar Buckner (1887–1891).

A Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) Post #78 was established at Carrollton and named the William L. Lee post after a Carrollton native who had died in 1862, with the Union’s Thirteenth Ky. Infantry at Bowling Green, Ky. The Carrollton GAR Post had five members that attended the 1895 state GAR convention: W.M. Bowling J. G. Bunton, A. C. Jones, J. T. Lewis, and A.N. Jett who was listed as commander. In 1889, the Carrollton post had seventeen members, and in 1906, thirteen.

Adjutant General’s Report, Kentucky: Confederate Troops.

 

Adjutant General’s Report: Kentucky Union Troops.

 

Brown, David E. “Was There a Massacre in Saltville in 1864?” Review of Thomas D. Mays The Saltville Massacre, Albuquerque, N.M.: Ryan Place Publishers, 1995.

Carrollton Democrat, May 24, 1884.

CDC, September 14, 1862, September 19, 1862.

Field Report by Col. Henry L. Giltner. Commander, Second Cavalry Brigade, CSA, November 10, 1863 to Major Thomas Rowland, Assistant Adjutant General available at home.cinci.rr.com/secondtennessee/giltner.html, accessed May 7, 2006.

Gentry, Mary Ann. A History of Carroll County. Madison, Ind., 1984.

Marvel, William. “The Battle of Saltville: Massacre or Myth?” Blue and Gray Magazine, August 1991.

Mosgrove, George Dallas. Kentucky Cavaliers in Dixie: The Reminiscences of a Confederate Cavalryman. Reprint. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Prichard, James. Review of Kenneth A. Hafendorfer, They Died by Twos and Tens. KH Press, 1995.

Diane Perrine Coon

.

Hoagland Family

This article minus the photographs appeared in the Northern Kentucky Enclyclopedia, published by University Press of Kentucky in 2009.

Cornelius Hoagland, pioneer, Hunter’s Bottom, Kentucky

he Hoagland family were among the early settlers of Hunter’s Bottom, Ky., in Carroll Co. Cornelius Hoagland was the fourth generation of a Dutch immigrant family who in 1657 came from Harlaam, Holland, to New Amsterdam (N.Y., N.Y.) Cornelius was born in 1750 on a farm along the Millstone River in Windsor, Middlesex Co., N.J. He was the fourth son of Martinus and Phoebe Van Okie Hoagland. In 1776, four of the Hoagland brothers—John, Martin, Cornelius and Abraham—volunteered for service in the N.J. militia. Martin became a Captain, and their uncle Okey Hoagland became a Major.

Light Dragoons
George Washington’s Light Dragoons

In early 1777, Capt. Cornelius Hoagland organized N.J.’s only mounted horse troop at Middlebrook. His unit, along with four mounted horse troops from Conn. and one from Mass., became the elite Second Light Dragoons Regiment, under the command of Elisha Sheldon. The Dragoons excelled at reconnaissance and at General George Washington’s insistance they cross-trained with saber and with rifle as mounted infantry. Operating most frequently in small groups, the Second Light Dragoons staged numerous harassment raids and supply ambushes throughout N.J., Conn., and upstate N.Y. Frequently, the Dragoons acted as bodyguards for General Washington, covered retreats of the army, and at Valley Forge, Pa., they patrolled the perimeter. The Second Light Dragoons were the last unit dismissed from service by General Washington at West Point, N. Y. on November 20, 1783.

Jacob Ford Mansion, Morristown, NJ

Jacob Ford Mansion, Morristown, New Jersey

Capt. Cornelius Hoagland was stationed at Morristown, N. J., in the winter and early spring of 1776–1777. On May 15, 1777, he married Mary Tuttle, daughter of Captain Moses Tuttle, of Mt. Pleasant, northwest of Whippany, N.J. Tuttle was the owner of a famous iron mine that produced cannon and shot for the colonies’ war effort. The Tuttle family had arrived in Boston, Mass., in 1635, about the same time the Hoaglands came to New Amsterdam, and were prominent members of society in Conn . The original Yale University buildings in N. J. were erected on William Tuttle’s land near the New Haven green. Mary Tuttle, through her mother, was related to the large Ford family; her uncle Jacob Ford’s home in Morristown served as Gen. George Washington’s headquarters in the winter of 1779–1780, and Mary attended dances and social events there.

 

 

 

Immediately following the war, Cornelius joined his father-in-law in running the iron business. Together, they expanded the enterprise which included the original mine, forges, and mills. Cornelius and his brother-in-law Charles Hoff, on March 15, 1781 entered land surveys for 1,000 acres each along the Ohio River in what became Hunter’s Bottom, Ky. A series of financial panics in the mid and late 1780s nearly bankrupted the Tuttle iron business and prevented Hoagland from exercising his use of the Ky. lands until 1797.

Between 1778 and 1798, the first nine children of Cornelius and Mary were born in Windsor, Middlesex Co. In 1793, Cornelius Hoagland paid taxes in Pequannok, Morris Co., N. J. Apparently Hoagland was working through his debts, because he served as carpenter for the Peter Ogden estate in Morristown; Ogden, a relative of the Tuttles, served as N.J. representative and participated in approving the U. S. Constitution.

The lure of open lands in the West continued to attract Cornelius Hoagland and his family. Cornelius Hoagland and his eldest son, Moses, came to Ky. in 1797, entered the survey in the Ky. land records, and cleared this land. They returned to N.J., and Cornelius sold his property there. In 1801, Cornelius brought the entire family—Mary and eight children, and his sister Anna, to Hunter’s Bottom. His older brother, Martin Hoagland, settled in Lexington, Ky., that same year. Cornelius and his sons built a low, one-story, rambling house. Indian mounds were located on the property. George Rodgers Clark is said to have stayed overnight at the Hoagland home. Cornelia and Emily Hoagland were born in Hunter’s Bottom in 1800 and 1803, respectively.

In 1801, upon the recommendation of Presley Gray, Lieutenant. Colonel of the Fifty-first Regiment, Ky. Governor James Garrard (1796–1804) appointed Cornelius Hoagland a Major in the regiment; Hoagland resigned that commission late in 1802.  Cornelius Hoagland replaced Presley Gray as assistant judge of the local circuit court on February 25, 1805. The Ky. circuit of the court’s chief justice, Cary L. Clarke, included Boone, Campbell, Gallatin, Harrison, Pendleton, and Scott counties.

While returning from a court session in Port William, Ky. in July 1806, Cornelius Hoagland stopped to view work being done to clear land, was struck by a burning tree limb, and died at fifty-six, leaving Mary to raise eleven children in the wilderness. Cultured and educated, Mary Tuttle Hoagland is said to have educated several of the neighborhood children, in addition to her own. Her stories of the events she witnessed firsthand during the Revolutionary War, and especially stories of George Washington, were part of the lore and legend of Hunter’s Bottom. A land partition in 1806 divided the Hoagland farm into twelve equal parts, each child and the widow receiving about one hundred acres. Mary died in February 1836, and was buried at Hunter’s Bottom.

The Hoagland family’s eldest son, Moses Tuttle Hoagland, followed in his father’s footsteps, serving in the Ky. Militia’s Second Regiment Mounted Volunteers during the War of 1812. The family history claimed that Moses served on the staff of Gen. Andrew Jackson and was given a battlefield command as a Major at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815, but there is no validating muster list. He married Sarah Paine (Payne) of Lexington, and lived at Hunter’s Bottom. Okey Hoagland, an attorney that speculated in land both in Ind. and Ky., bought portions of the Hoagland family’s lands from his sister, Delia Morris, and his brother, Martin, who moved west. Okey, who became lame and later blind, constructed what was later known as the Hampton House, a square-set house with a center corridor from architectural plans he acquired while in N.J. Two girls from the Hoagland family, Mary Caroline and Emily, married sons of John Conway, another early Hunter’s Bottom settler, and descendents of the Conway family members who continue to live at Hunter’s Bottom on farms. Jane Hoagland (?) married William White and he built them a home at Hunter’s Bottom that still stands.

Carpenter, Daniel Hoagland. History and Genealogy of the Hoagland Family in America. (Place of publication: publisher; date?)

Hampton, Ella. TM, “Early Settlers in Hunters Bottom,” 1965.

Hoagland, George William. Dirck Jansen Hoogland Family History 1657–1976, Genie Reprint, 1976.

Memoirs of the Lower Ohio Valley, Volume I. (author, place of publication, publisher, date?)

U.S. Treasury Warrants 2014, 2015 for 1,000 acres on the Ohio River, Ky. Survey No. 2341 filed November 3, 1797. (where?)