Early African American Education in Shelby County Kentucky

Model School at Lincoln Ridge, Simpsonville KY
Model School at Lincoln Ridge, Simpsonville KY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This article was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Shelby County KY Historical Society in relation to Black History Month and the celebration of African American heritage.

Education of African Americans in Shelby County, Kentucky — A New Perspective

By Diane Perrine Coon

The January-February 2013 display in the Shelbyville Public Library highlights the long struggle to gain education for African American children in Shelby County, Kentucky. It features 1) Elijah Preston Marrs, a slave that became one of the earliest educators in Kentucky; 2) Lincoln Institute at Simpsonville, a boarding school providing African American children in the region a competent high school education during the segregated Kentucky decades; and 3) photos of the segregated schools at Bradshaw Street Graded School in Shelbyville, the Christiansburg Rosenwald School, and the faculty at High Street School in Martinsville, representative of the hundreds of dedicated teachers who struggled to teach against large class sizes, hand-me-down textbooks and scarce classroom resources.

In preparing the first countywide celebration of African American heritage in Shelby County, a number of important elements of African American education in this county were uncovered:

  1. A complete list of the Freedmen Bureau (1866-1870) schools and teachers in Shelby County — Simpsonville; Shelbyville (3 schools); Consolation (Stringtown); Christiansburg (Hinesville)
  2. A complete list of the Rosenwald Schools (1919-1924) in Shelby County and a petition for National Register designation for the Bucks Creek Rosenwald School —-     Bucks Creek, Christiansburg (Hinesville); Scotts Station; Chestnut Grove;  Clarks Station
  3. Identification of distinguished teachers and principals – a major element of African-American heritage in Shelby County, Kentucky. This work will continue.
  4. Brenda Jackson and Roland Dale have begun compilation of the Negro School Registers from the early 20th This work includes the complete list per school of the children, parents, teachers and teacher salaries during this period.

Reconstruction and Freedmen Bureau Schools (1866-1870):

Sources: Autobiography of Elijah Preston Marrs, Freedmen Bureau records, Kentucky State Library and Archives.

  1. Elijah Preston Marrs – taught at Simpsonville, Shelbyville, LaGrange, New Castle and Louisville; was a delegate to the 1868 Education Conference in Louisville that drew 1,000 supporters of education for African American citizens and training for Kentucky’s African-American teachers.
  2. Henry Marrs – taught at Lexington, Frankfort, LaGrange and Louisville
  3. Alfred E. Hughes – taught at Simpsonville’s Freedmen Bureau school
  4. William H. Russell, Joseph D. Mumford, Thomas S. Baxter, E. E. Hansborough – taught at Shelbyville’s three Freedmen Bureau schools
  5. Laura Stevens – taught at Christiansburg’s Freedmen Bureau School
  6. Charles Smith and Mrs. R. E. Harris – taught at Consolation’s Freedmen Bureau School

 Early Common School Era (1875-1920):

Sources: Notable Kentucky African Americans, University of Kentucky database; 1880 Federal Manuscript Census for Shelby County, Kentucky, 1882 Atlas of Henry and Shelby County, Kentucky; New History of Shelby County, Shelby County Historical Society; Local history files, Shelbyville Public Library.

  1.  Identification of Lewis Lawson, age 23, Sarah Clark, age 26, Lucy Gwinm, age 23, African American teachers in Shelby County’s few segregated common schools (from the 1880 federal manuscript census).
  2. 1881 Bartlett Taylor, born 1840 a slave in Henderson, Kentucky, gained wealth through meat packing and land speculation in Louisville, built several A.M.E. churches the largest in Bowling Green, came as pastor in 1881 to Bethel A.M.E. in Shelbyville, petitioned to build a school for African-American children that became the Graded School on Bradshaw. Rev. Taylor paid for the school building and its teachers. (From Notable Kentucky African Americans)
  3. 1898 African American School Districts – Uncovered the location of 15 of the 20 “colored” common schools, 6 in churches, 2 log, 7 frame, 1 brick, 1 condemned, (From the 1882 Atlas.)
  4. 1912 – first class at Lincoln Institute, early contracts between Shelbyville, Shelby County, Eminence, Henry County, for high school education; George T. Corderey the superintendent of woodwork, and Seaton Baldwin, superintendent of power, heat, etc., the first African Americans on the Lincoln Institute staff. (From the Public Library local history collections.)
  5. 1911-1915 – first consolidations of historic black schools, Clay Village and Rockbridge, Harrisonville and Waddy, Scotts Station and Todds Point, Evansville and Simpsonville (Model School) (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky).

Rosenwald Schools (1917-1924) – One Teacher Architecture:

“Rosenwald Schools of Kentucky,” Alicestyne Turley-Brown, 1997, Kentucky African American Heritage Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky

  1.  Buck Creek (next to Allen Chapel south of Finchville)
  2. Christiansburg (at Hinesville near Mount Pleasant Baptist Church)
  3. Chestnut Grove (northwest of Shelbyville)
  4. Olive Branch (between Finchville and Southville, on Zaring Mill Road)
  5. Clarks Station (north of the Fisherville Road on Clarks Station Road near tracks)
  6. Scotts Station (on Antioch Road at junction with Scotts Station Road across from Shiloh Baptist Church)

Segregated School System (1924-1956:

  1. 1930 – J. W. Roberts named superintendent of colored schools in Shelbyville; Hellen Johnson, age 19, Rachel Davis, age 18, and Kerk Smith, age 64, listed as teachers at Lincoln Institute. (From the 1930 federal manuscript census.)
  2. 1935-1936 – replaced the 1918 contract between Shelbyville Independent School District and Lincoln Institute to reflect addition of the management of the Model School serving Simpsonville children, reorganization of the 1-8 and High School; addition of the John Ethington broom factory, contracts let for transportation from Eminence, Shelbyville, Henry County and Shelby County. (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky.)
  3. 1936 – painted the school at Bagdad, rebuilt the Clarks Station and Todds Point schools, put an addition on the Scotts Station school, designated Harrisonville as an emergency school location. (From New History of Shelby County, Kentucky).; Lucy Jane Payne, teacher at Scotts Station School. (From interview with Maureen Bullitt Ashby.)
  4. 1940 – Robert L. Dowery Sr. born in Shelbyville in 1893, served in 1940s as teacher and principal at Shelbyville’s Graded School, in the 1920s and 1930s he taught in schools in Franklin County, Taylor County, Campbellsville and Elizabethtown. President and organizer of District #4 Teachers Association, Served in U.S. Army in WW1, died 1952 and buried at Zachary Taylor National Cemetery.(From Notable Kentucky African Americans)
  5. 1940 – Shelbyville Colored Graded School (Bradshaw) upgraded using Public Works Administration funds and 90 cent general school tax, (From New History); Mr. R. D. Roman was principal at the Junior High School in Shelbyville and Mrs. Jewell J. Rabb was teacher there (from Shelbyville Sentinnel photo in the Shelbyviile Public Library local history collection); Ada Hedland, Curtis Greenfield and his wife Mary, Lamont Lawson, Joseph and Kathleen Carroll and Whitney Young all listed as teachers at Lincoln Institute; Will Allen, age 28, and Beatrice Boyd, age 34, listed as teachers in Rural District #7. (From 1940 federal manuscript census); Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Turner, teachers at the Model School at Lincoln Ridge and then transferred to the Montclair School. (From interview with Maureen Bullitt Ashby.)
  6. 1945 – Graded School on Bradshaw in Shelbyville burned; 1946-1948 – High Street School built in Martinsville on lots at Eleventh and High Street. 1949 – only three black elementary schools left in Shelby County. (From New History). Faculty included: Mrs. Ruth Ratcliffe, principal, Mrs. W. Mathis, music, Mrs. E. Byrd, Mrs. D. Dale, Mrs. J. Dale, Mrs. V. Purdy, Mrs. H. Taylor, Mr. M. Mooreman, Mrs. M. Brown, Mrs. F. Stone, Mrs. H. Thomas. (From Shelbyville Sentinnel photo in Shelby Public Library local history collection.)
  7. 1954 – Brown vs Board of Education strikes down segregated schools. 1956 first integration of Simpsonville Elementary; 1957 limited number of students integrate Southside Elementary in Shelbyville; 1964 Civil Rights Act; Shelby County dragged its heels toward integration of Junior and Senior High Schools, finally propelled to action by 1966 Kentucky Legislature closing both Lincoln Institute and High Street School. Brenda Jackson and Roland Dale, among first students to integrate Shelby County High School. Students still being bused to Lincoln Institute as late as 1969.
  8. 1980 – NAACP attacks school board’s affirmative action plan to hire and retain African American teachers as insufficient.

Help Needed to Complete African American School Locations:

  • We are trying to determine the specific location of the following schools:
  1. Olive Branch Rosenwald School
  2. “Colored” Common School location for Southville District, for Rockbridge District, for Harrisonville District, for Logans Station District, for Todds Station District, for Clay Village District.
  • Verify the use of the following African American churches as early school locations:
  1. Olive Branch Colored M.E. Church on Zaring Mill Road between Locust Grove Road and current Olive Branch M.E. Church.
  2. Pleasant View Colored Baptist Church at Stringtown on Route 1005
  3. “Colored Church” on Bardstown Trail between Grafensburg (Hardinsburg) and Route 395, Bagdad-Harrisonville Pike.
  4. Back Creek Road Baptist Church on Route 636 north of Mt. Eden; later had a school
  5. Zion Baptist Church at Clay Village and Benson
  6. Shelbyville – use of which church for Freedmen Schools; FB built one large brick school, contributed toward one smaller frame school and used one African American church as a school. Was this Clay Street or Bethel A.M.E.?

If anyone has information about these locations or photos of the schools/churches, please contact Diane Perrine Coon, de2perrine@aol.com or Kerry Magan at kcmcpc@bellsouth.net

 

 

Freedmen Bureau Schools

This article was published in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, 2009, University Press of Kentucky.

Freedmen’s Bureau Schools. Before the Civil War, free people of color residing in Ky. could with great difficulty obtain basic reading and writing skills through subscription schools sponsored by their churches or by leaving Ky. to attend schools in states north of the Ohio River. In some urban areas of Ky. church pastors taught in the subscription schools; however, in the state’s rural areas such educational opportunities rarely existed.

Slaves had even more difficulty learning how to read and write. Very few slave owners in Ky. permitted their slaves to learn to read the Bible, as this practice was frowned upon both by social custom and by various local ordinances. In Bracken Co. in Ky., during the mid-1830s, a slave owner named Jack Tabb taught his slaves to read and “figger” because this suited Tabb’s interests. However, Tabb’s actions were quite unusual. Most slave owners feared that slaves, if taught to write, would forge “permission to move” slips and escape to the North. Such fears were particularly acute for those holding slaves in the river counties of Northern Kentucky. Eventually, one of Tabb’s slaves, Arnold Gragston, did just that, leaving Ky. with his entire family for Canada.

At the end of the Civil War, the nation faced the fact that there were nearly four million illiterate freedmen, with almost 250,000 of these living in Ky. In the massive confusion following the war’s end, federal and state governments focused on reestablishing political and economic stability rather educating the free blacks and former slaves who lacked a basic education. Rebuilding the railroads and transportations systems were instead among the war-scarred nation’s first priorities. The Radical Republicans in the U.S. Congress sought legislation that would redistribute land from Confederate officials and military leaders to former slaves and provide welfare assistance and jobs for freedmen. Over strong objections and a veto by President Andrew Johnson (1865–1869), Congress enacted legislation establishing the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in mid-1865 (Freedmen’s Bureau). Part of its mission was to create a system of education for former slaves.

Initially, Ky. was not covered under this legislation. However, the Ky. General Assembly’s failure to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, to eliminate the slave codes, and to provide for the education of former slaves caught the attention of Major Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, the Freedmen’s Bureau administrator in Tenn. Fisk’s January 1866 report to Washington, D.C., detailing Kentucky’s intransigence, led to the establishment of a Freedmen’s Bureau in Ky., an action seen by Ky. lawmakers as treating their state as conquered territory.

Northern abolitionists, working chiefly through the American Missionary Association (AMA) and Western Freedmen Aid Commission (WFAC), poured money as well as preachers and teachers into the South from 1865–1867. In Ky., these benevolent societies established schools at Covington and then eventually across the rest of the state.

Appointed as Chaplain and Chief Superintendent of Freedmen’s Bureau Schools, Rev. T. K. Noble (working under Major Gen. Jeff C. Davis, the Freedmen’s Bureau’s Assistant Commissioner for Ky.), began the arduous task of supervising the education of 250,000 former slaves; Noble’s priority throughout his tenure as superintendent was to educate the 37,000 freed school-aged children in Ky. In December 1865, Ky. had only eighteen schools educating African Americans—nine subscription schools and nine schools funded through the AMA and WFAC.

The federal government funded the Freedmen’s Bureau’s staff salaries, some limited construction funds for schools, part of the teachers’ transportation costs, and a small portion of the teachers’ salaries at the Freedmen’s Bureau schools. The bulk of funding for these schools in Ky. was supposed to come from taxes paid by freedmen. Since few African Americans owned property in 1866, the taxes collected were miniscule. For several years, the Ky. General Assembly insisted that freedmen paupers should receive the bulk of taxes paid by freedmen, leaving very little money for the schools operated by the Freedmen’s Bureau. As a result, the Freedmen’s Bureau schools were financed only partly by a shoestring budget from the federal government. Religious and abolitionist sources financed some Freedmen’s Bureau schools, many of the teacher salaries, and even some teacher training. Tuition fees from freedmen themselves defrayed costs of buildings and some of the teachers’ salaries. Freedmen, especially in the rural areas, had little access to cash, and therefore most contributions were in kind such as donating labor in constructing the schools and by using their church buildings as schools. Had it not been for the financial resources from AMA, WFAC, and the Baptist, Episcopal, and Methodist missionary associations, the educational effort at the Freeman’s Bureau schools would have failed quickly.

Reverend Noble established three regional districts in Ky.—Louisville, Lexington, and Paducah—and began appointing district superintendents whose task it was to educate black citizens. The Freedman Bureau’s first statistical report on progress at these schools, by Jesse Duns, was submitted to Washington, D.C. in June 1866; only slight gains had been realized in the first six months, and these were mainly in the urban areas. There were eighteen schools in Louisville and Lexington and seven in the rest of the state, serving 80 adults and 2,800 children. Most of these schools operated only three months each year. Moreover, it was reported that operational budgets at these schools were extremely small.

The task in Ky. was so monumental that Noble decided to allow the abolitionists to concentrate on developing freedmen schools in the state while Noble, in turn, would focus on developing community-based initiatives and support for educating freedmen. Accordingly, Noble encouraged the AMA, a longtime supporter of Berea College, the WFAC, an early supporter of efforts in Covington, and the Baptist, Episcopal, and Methodist missionary societies to continue working on developing the freedmen schools statewide. By design, the Freedmen’s Bureau thereafter focused its limited resources on sharing some expenses of freedmen churches in order to open their buildings for day and night subscription schools, paying for teacher transportation and funding school buildings where necessary.

One critical shortage–the lack of qualified teachers—was solved initially by using abolitionist agencies to recruit young black and white teachers from the North, many from Oberlin College at Yellow Springs in Ohio, and from New England and N.Y. Kentuckians disliked the idea of former slaves learning to read and write and despised these abolitionist teachers from the North. Noble’s monthly reports detail examples of these teachers being harassed and terrorized by local citizens. Noble placed a high priority on establishing African-American teacher training and certification at two locations, and with the aid of AMA and WFAC, the new Ely Normal School in Louisville was launched with forty teacher certification candidates by December 1868; the same resources funded Berea College in Berea, Ky., that had space for 150 students, half of them white.

Colored School Idlewild Boone Co KY Scheben Library
Colored School Idlewild Boone Co KY Scheben Library Similar to early Freedmen’s Bureau schools.

The second critical shortage was the lack of buildings that could be used as schools for the freedmen’s children. Most of the earliest schools were housed in African-American churches or in buildings described as shacks. Noble lobbied hard to use the meager Freedmen’s Bureau funds to build new school buildings. Among the earliest schoolhouses built in Northern Kentucky were: a 30 by 60 foot wooden structure at Washington, Ky., in Mason Co., completed in April 1867; and an 18 by 30 foot schoolhouse costing $200 at Warsaw, Ky., in Gallatin Co., completed in mid-1868.

In the schoolhouse construction program, either the Freedmen’s Bureau or the local freedmen trustees acquired titles to the land. Under contract with local freedmen trustees, the Freedmen’s Bureau supplied the lumber, nails, and other materials while local freemen provided free labor. The Freedmen’s Bureau schools were simple structures, no more than rectangular boxes, but at a time when there were few rural common schools for whites, these schoolhouses were treasured by freedmen and despised by many whites. As such, they were often the target of reprisals by night riders, some of whom belonged to the Ku Klux Klan.

In October 1868, reporting on fall classes, the Freedmen’s Bureau maintained 135 day schools, 1 night school, 6 white teachers, and 144 black teachers, with 6,022 students enrolled. However, there were “outrages:” such as the church schoolhouse operated by the Freedmen’s Bureau in Germantown, Ky., Mason Co., which had been burned down by arsonists. By 1869, Ben Runkle, Noble’s replacement as superintendent in Ky., reported substantial gains, with a total of 248 schools operating. Thirteen schools, newly constructed with Freedmen’s Bureau funds, were completed.

In Northern Kentucky, the Freedmen’s Bureau activity was uneven. Augusta, Covington, Maysville, and Washington were quick to embrace the education of freedmen. But the river counties of Boone and Carroll, and inland in the heavily Confederate strongholds of Grant and Owen Cos. there was little interest and often violent hostility. In 1870 in Boone Co., for example, there was only one freedmen school operating at Caladonia, now Petersburg, Ky.

In some Ky. counties, great losses of the slave population immediately prior to and during the Civil War combined with antipathy to create a general indifference toward educating former slaves. Across the Ohio River at Madison, Ind., the Freemen’s Bureau funded a school in fall 1868 so that freedmen’s children from Carroll and Trimble Cos. in Ky. could be educated. Hundreds of former slaves from these and other Ky. counties fled into Ind. and Ohio. The small A.M.E. church school at Hanover, Ind., funded in part by the Freedmen’s Bureau, taught seventy-five students while another seventy per year were being taught in Madison’s black churches. At the same time, the large influx of former slaves out of Northern Kentucky into Cincinnati, Ohio, was being prompted as much by the promise of access to education as to the promise of wage jobs. Boone and Kenton Cos. in Northern Kentucky experienced 60% reductions in their African-American populations between 1850 and 1870.

Ky.’s state funding of black schooling remained a chronic problem throughout the five years, 1865–1869, that the Freedmen’s Bureau schools were operating in the state. And later during the 1870s, once Confederates supporters had taken control of the Ky. political structure, funding for the freedmen’s schools essentially ceased. Ultimately, Northern abolitionists had no sustaining interest in further occupying the South. In January 1869, the Freedmen’s Bureau was ordered closed and by April 1869 its schools in Ky. were left, forsaken and still unfunded.

Many of the black churches continued educating former slaves in subscription programs in spite of the lack of cash and blatant hostility toward their activities among whites. Clearly, the Freemen’s Bureau had made a start in the task of educating former slaves. More than 10,750 black children had received at least three months of schooling, about a third of what was needed. Additionally, more than one hundred buildings usable as schools had been designated for freedmen; and a small, but eager, cadre of newly trained black teachers had graduated from Berea College and the Ely Normal School in Louisville.

One of the most important steps that the Freedmen’s Bureau accomplished was their aid, working with AMA and WFAC, in forming a statewide convention of black educators. The first meeting in 1867 in Lexington petitioned the Ky. General Assembly for support for black schools; the second meeting in Louisville was a three-day conference that featured distinguished national and state speakers. Attended by Covington African-American leaders Jacob Price and Isaac Black, the conference’s resolutions petitioned the Ky. General Assembly to add the African-American population to the common school system. The resolutions denoted that the Freedmen’s Bureau was leaving the state, and therefore it was even more critical for the state to take responsibility.

Cities such as Covington and Newport, Ky., that had charters from the state legislature, were able to take advantage of their respective mayor’s and city council’s authority to fund their black schools through taxes and then sinking funds, much drawn from the white school system. However, it was 1874 before the state legislature acted to include African-American children in the common schools system.

In April 1875, the first of the checks funding segregated black common schools in Ky. were sent from state government in Frankfort to Campbell, Carroll, Kenton, and Pendleton counties. . The Freedmen’s Bureau had established 18 schools in Northern Kentucky with space for 443 students. By 1900, under the common school program, there were 54 schools in Northern Kentucky dedicated to educating 3,959 black students, the descendants of former slaves.

Bentley, George R. The History of the Freedmen’s Bureau, New York: Octagon Books, 1970.

Cover Letters and Narrative Reports, Rev. T. K. Noble, Chaplain and Chief Superintendent Freedmen Schools, State of Kentucky to Rev. J. W. Alvord, General Superintendent, Washington, D. C., July 8, 1867, October 1, 1867, January 1, 1868, March 8, 1868, April 1, 1868, May 1, 1868, January 13, 1869.

Marrs, Elijah Preston. “Autobiography of Elijah P. Marrs,” from Documenting the American South at University of North Carolina. Ledger, Superintendent of Schools of Kentucky (Colored), 1875–1885, Kentucky State Archives.

Narrative Reports from Ben R. Runkle, Louisville, KY, to Brig. Gen. E. Whittlesey, Washington, D. C., July 20, 1869.

Reports to Superintendent of Public Instruction, January 3,1839—January 3, 1849, Kentucky State Archives.

Statistical Report, Freedmen’s Bureau–State of Kentucky, December 1868, February 1869.

Turley-Adams, Alicestyne. Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, Frankfort: Kentucky Heritage Council and African-American Heritage Commission, 1997. Webb, Ross A. “The Past is Never Dead, It’s Not Even Past,” Benjamin P. Runkle and the Freedmen’s Bureau in Kentucky, 1866–1870, in Donald G. Nieman, ed. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Black Freedom, II, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994.

Wilson, George D. A Century of Negro Education in Louisville, Kentucky. Louisville” University of Louisville, 1986, from original Works Progress Administration and Louisville Municipal College, ca. 1935.

Freedmen’s Schools in Northern Kentucky

July1867-February1869

 

County Town Date Sponsor Teacher* Note
Mason Wash-  ington July 1867 Freedmen’s Bureau Building 30×60 Wood
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Amanda Perkins
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Avene Casey
Mason Mays-        ville Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Mary E.   Wilson
Mason Wash-  ington Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Elizabeth Wilkerson
Bracken Augusta Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau
  1. M. White
Pendle-  ton Brandy-  wine Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Mary  Southgate
Pendle-  ton Fal-  mouth Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Ellen Kinny
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau
  1. C. Wilmot
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Ellen N.   Leavitt
Kenton Coving-      ton Apr 1868 Freedmen’s Bureau Richard Singer
Bracken Augusta Dec 1868 Church & School Jeptha Griffin—c 13 male, 15 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Alex Howard Alex Howard—c 26 male, 16 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Mary Williams Mary Williams—c 12 male, 13 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Dec 1868 Henry Graham Julia Warner—c 8 male, 9 female
Kenton Coving-      ton Dec 1868 Church
  1. E. Willis—c

Eliza Skillman—w

44 male, 45 female
Mason Mays-       ville Dec 1868 Church Amanda Perkins—cGreen Casey—cThird unintelligible 39 male, 47 female
Mason Wash-  ington Dec 1868 School Marcia    Dunlap—c 20 male, 21 female
Pendle- ton Fal- mouth Dec 1868 Church Ellen M. H. Southgate—c 10 male, 6 female
Gallatin Warsaw Jan 1869 Freedmen’s Bureau Building 18×30 $200
Bracken German- town Jan 1869 Freedmen’s Bureau Freedmen’s Church and School burned
Boone Cale-    donia Feb 1869 School Joshua    Kendall—c 18 male, 18 female
Bracken Augusta Feb 1869 Church Unreported 12 male, 15 female
Pendle-  ton Fal- mouth Feb 1869 Church Ellen M. Southgate 9 male, 4 female
Camp-   bell New-  port Feb 1869 Henry Graham School Mary    Warmus—w 12 male, 13 female
Camp-  bell New-  port Feb 1869 Closed
Kenton Coving-    ton Feb 1869 Church
  1. C. Wilmot—w

Eliza Skillman—c

56 male, 48 female
Kenton Coving-    ton Feb 1869 Church
  1. C. Wilmot—w (night)
17 male, 12 female
Kenton Union     Hall Feb 1869 School William A. Patterson—c 20 male, 15 female
Mason Mays-     ville Feb 1869 Church Amanda Perkins—cGreen       Carey—cMary Nelson—c 50 male, 52 female
Mason May- slick Feb 1869 School Emma Gardner—c 25 male, 27 female
Mason Wash- ington Feb 1869 Church Narcissa Dunlap—c 20 male, 20 female
Pendle-  ton Brandy-  wine Feb 1869 School Mary South- gate—c 6 male, 6 female

* Note c—colored, w—white

 

Diane Perrine Coon

 

History by Perrine

Conway cousins with John Thomas Conway's 7 seater Chandler Auto c 1915 cropped
c 1915 John Thomas Conway family with Chandler auto North College Hill, Ohio
1st Christian Burnet TX, Perrines and Rose Easter Sunday
2006 – Ollie, Jane and George Perrine, Diane Perrine Coon, Rose Villard at Burnet TX Easter Sunday at First Christian Church
Anne Vance Perrine d 1843 Perrine Corners PA tombstone
Anne Vance Perrine d 1843
Wm Perrine 1753-1839 Perrine Corners Mercer Co PA tombstone
William Perrine 1753-1830

 

 Family History – arrival in U.S.A.

1663 – Perrine, c 1700 Vance, 1743 Haag/Hawk, 1625 Clark,  1625 Bearce/Bierce, 1738 Willems/Williams/ Lenae Lenape

1650 Conway, 1663 Hougland, 1640 Tuttle, 1630 Ford, 1720 Peters, 1623 Vannest 

David, George Alexander, Aaron Hawk, c 1880 Civil War Vets
David, George Alexander, Aaron Hawk, c 1880 139th PA Civil War Vets
Peters Cousins, Brothers, Sisters, Ezra & Lillian
Ezra and Lillian Hodge Peters 50th Anniversary Cincinnati Ohio

 

Tiny Teacups – Chapter One

Stories from 1938-2009 Our Family Odyssey – People, Places, Events and Photos

Tiny Teacups – Chapter Two

1942-2009 Wartime and Peacetime: Lt. Commander George Bierce Perrine, M.D. US Navy, Maple Avenue in Pewee Valley, Kentucky, Cornell University and Grad School(s)

Tiny Teacups – Chapter Three

1650-1920 – Conways to Wiccomico River in Virginia, to Hunters Bottom, Kentucky, to Uniontown, Indiana, to North College Hill, Ohio

1663-1875 – Houglands to New Amsterdam, to Millstone River, New Jersey, to Hunters Bottom, Kentucky, to Uniontown, Indiana

Tiny Teacups – Chapter Four

1665-1950  Chasing the Perrines across America from Staten Island to New Jersey to Pennsylvania to Ohio to Pewee Valley Kentucky

1748-1912 The Haag/Hawks pioneers in Western Pennsylvania

Tiny Teacups – Chapter Five

Cousins, Aunts, Uncles, Family Gatherings

History of Ohio River Valley

 

Aurora seen from Ferry Slip, near Petersburg
Aurora, Indiana, on Ohio River
Little KY River 2, Henry Bibb Trail
Little Kentucky River near Carrollton

Finding Shoofly

Magistrates of Mason County

Arthur St. Clair’s Defeat

Country Stores of Kentucky

 African American Family History

Fitler Store in 1927 floot
Red Store at Fitler in 1927 Flood

Finding Fitler, Mississippi

Henry Bibb Trail

Villard/Johnson/Jenkins Family

Slavery and Underground Railroad

Union FWB church, Flat Rock pref. site adj
Union FWB Church, Flat Rock, Ripley Co, Indiana

Rail Road House Secret Cellar

 

 

 

 

 

 

UGRR in Southeastern Indiana

Slavery, Anti-Slavery and UGRR in Shelby Co, Kentucky

Signals & Tokens of UGRR

Reconstructing UGRR at Madison, Indiana

Automobile Tour of UGRR Sites in Ripley County, Indiana

Automobile Tour of UGRR Sites in Boone County, Kentucky

Elijah Marrs

 

Church History

IMG_2195
St. James Episcopal Church, Shelbyville, Kentucky

Illustrated History of St. James, Shelbyville

American Jesus, illustrated

Sacred Space, Sacred Sound

Spiritual Gifts from World Religions

 

Academic Papers

Inquisition France, Italy and  Germany

Chapman Harris and St. Paul’s Baptist C hurch

Reconstructing the Underground Railroad in Trimble County, Kentucky

Land Speculation in Mason County, Kentucky

Merchants of Clark County, Indiana

Contrast between  Reactions to Fall of New York in 1776 and the Fall of Philadelphia in 1777

Encyclopedia Articles

Slavery

Abolitionists

Anti-Slavery

Emancipationists

Underground Railroad in Boone, Gallatin, Carroll Counties

Rowlett's Grocery Milton KY Trimble Co on postcard
Rowlett’s Grocery Milton KY Trimble Co on postcard

County Stores

Sold to the Chattachochee River trade, book by Neville and Mue
Fannie Fearn at Columbus on Chattochochee River Neville and Mueller

Fearn Family    Hunters Bottom Kentucky

Hougland Family

Carroll County Schools

St. Peter’s Lutheran Church

Kentucky Humanity Council Talks

Country Stores of Kentucky

Researching the Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad Routes and Operations

Tokens and Signals of the UGRR

Freedmens Bureau in Kentucky

Hunters Bottom

Finding Shoofly

Databases

Manumissions: Shelby County Kentucky

Fugitive Slave Ads Kentucky

Country Store Merchants

Freedmen Bureau Teachers in Kentucky

Freedman Bureau Schools in Kentucky

Fugitive Slave Census – Michigan, Canada

Early African American Churches in North and Central Kentucky